Send to

Choose Destination
J Clin Gastroenterol. 2020 Jan;54(1):35-42. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000001156.

Management of Functional Esophagogastric Junction Outflow Obstruction: A Systematic Review.

Author information

Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center.
Duke University Medical Center Library, Duke University Medical Center.
Division of Gastroenterology, Duke University Medical Center.
Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC.



Awareness of functional esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction (fEGJOO) has increased, but because there is no consensus on its management, we performed a systematic review of the literature to explore treatment strategies and outcomes.


EGJOO is a heterogenous disorder defined by high-resolution manometry parameters of elevated integrated relaxation pressure with preserved esophageal peristalsis. The etiology may be mechanical obstruction or idiopathic, the latter being fEGJOO.


The PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane library electronic databases were searched through June 2018 for all studies of adult patients describing a treatment strategy for fEGJOO or incomplete lower esophageal sphincter relaxation. The search strategy yielded 1792 studies and 8 (0.4%) met inclusion criteria.


All but one included studies were retrospective (n=184 patients). There were 5 interventions described, with botulinum toxin (Botox) injection (n=69) and expectant management (n=82) the most frequently reported, with success rates of 58% and 54%, respectively. There was substantial heterogeneity among patients and treatments were not directly compared, though reported symptom resolution was similar among all strategies with a mean follow-up time of 15 months.


There are a variety of management strategies available for fEGJOO and some patients may not require any intervention. However, among 4 potential approaches aimed at disrupting lower esophageal sphincter hypertonicity, the largest existing evidence base supports either a therapeutic challenge of Botox injection or watchful waiting. Ultimately, these data indicate the need for further study with controlled trials to identify a definitive approach.

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wolters Kluwer
Loading ...
Support Center