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Hum Brain Mapp. 2019 Apr 1;40(5):1608-1617. doi: 10.1002/hbm.24472. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

fMRI evidence of aberrant neural adaptation for objects in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

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Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California.
Desert Pacific Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Center, Greater Los Angeles Veterans Affairs Healthcare System, Los Angeles, California.
Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.
Department of Psychiatry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.
Olin Neuropsychiatric Research Center, Institute of Living, Hartford Hospital Whitehall Research Building, Hartford, Connecticut.
Department of Psychology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California.


Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) adaptation (also known as fMRI repetition suppression) has been widely used to characterize stimulus selectivity in vivo, a fundamental feature of neuronal processing in the brain. We investigated whether SZ patients and BD patients show aberrant fMRI adaptation for object perception. About 52 SZ patients, 55 BD patients, and 53 community controls completed an object discrimination task with three conditions: the same object presented twice, two exemplars from the same category, and two exemplars from different categories. We also administered two functional localizer tasks. A region of interest analysis was employed to evaluate a priori hypotheses about the lateral occipital complex (LOC) and early visual cortex (EVC). An exploratory whole brain analysis was also conducted. In the LOC and EVC, controls showed the expected reduced fMRI responses to repeated presentation of the same objects compared with different objects (i.e., fMRI adaptation for objects, p < .001). SZ patients showed an adaptation effect that was significantly smaller compared with controls. BD patients showed a lack of fMRI adaptation. The whole brain analyses showed enhanced fMRI responses to repeated presentation of the same objects only in BD patients in several brain regions including anterior cingulate cortex. This study was the first to employ fMRI adaptation for objects in SZ and BD. The current findings provide empirical evidence of aberrant fMRI adaptation in the visual cortex in SZ and BD, but in distinctly different ways.


bipolar disorder; fMRI adaptation; neural tuning; object processing; schizophrenia


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