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Nutrients. 2018 Dec 19;10(12). pii: E2011. doi: 10.3390/nu10122011.

Quality of Dietary Fat Intake and Body Weight and Obesity in a Mediterranean Population: Secondary Analyses within the PREDIMED Trial.

Author information

1
Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, 6708 Wageningen, The Netherlands. yvette.beulen@wur.nl.
2
Department of Preventive Medicine & Public Health, University of Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain. mamartinez@unav.es.
3
CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Spanish Government, 28029 Madrid, Spain. mamartinez@unav.es.
4
Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, 6708 Wageningen, The Netherlands. ondine.vanderest@wur.nl.
5
CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Spanish Government, 28029 Madrid, Spain. jordi.salas@urv.cat.
6
Human Nutrition Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Pere Virgili Health Research Institute, Rovira i Virgili University, 43002 Reus, Spain. jordi.salas@urv.cat.
7
CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Spanish Government, 28029 Madrid, Spain. sorli@uv.es.
8
Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain. sorli@uv.es.
9
Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Málaga, 29016 Málaga, Spain. egomezgracia@uma.es.
10
CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Spanish Government, 28029 Madrid, Spain. mfiol@hsd.es.
11
Institute of Health Sciences IUNICS, University of Balearic Islands and Hospital Son Espases, 07010 Palma de Mallorca, Spain. mfiol@hsd.es.
12
CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Spanish Government, 28029 Madrid, Spain. restruch@clinic.cat.
13
Department of Internal Medicine, Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition Biomedical Research Institute August Pi Sunyer (IDI- BAPS), Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, 08036 Barcelona, Spain. restruch@clinic.cat.
14
CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Spanish Government, 28029 Madrid, Spain. josemanuel.santos@ono.com.
15
Department of Family Medicine, Research Unit, Distrito Sanitario Atención Primaria Sevilla, Centro de Salud Universitario San Pablo, 41013 Sevilla, Spain. josemanuel.santos@ono.com.
16
Cardiovascular and Nutrition Research Group (Regicor Study Group), Hospital del Mar Research Institute (IMIM), 08003 Barcelona, Spain. hschoeder@imim.es.
17
CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Spanish Government, 28029 Madrid, Spain. hschoeder@imim.es.
18
CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Spanish Government, 28029 Madrid, Spain. angelmago13@gmail.com.
19
Department of Cardiology, University Hospital of Alava, 48940 Vitoria, Spain. angelmago13@gmail.com.
20
CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Spanish Government, 28029 Madrid, Spain. lluis.serra@ulpgc.es.
21
Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences (IUIBS), University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Service of Preventive Medicine, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario Insular Materno Infantil (CHUIMI), Canary Health Service, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain. lluis.serra@ulpgc.es.
22
CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Spanish Government, 28029 Madrid, Spain. xpinto@bellvitgehospital.cat.
23
Lipids and Vascular Risk Unit, Internal Medicine, Hospital Universitario de Bellvitge, Hospitalet de Llobregat, 08907 Barcelona, Spain. xpinto@bellvitgehospital.cat.
24
CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Spanish Government, 28029 Madrid, Spain. eros@clinic.cat.
25
Lipid Clinic, Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition Biomedical Research Institute August Pi Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, 08036 Barcelona, Spain. eros@clinic.cat.
26
CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Spanish Government, 28029 Madrid, Spain. nerea.becerra@urv.cat.
27
Human Nutrition Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Pere Virgili Health Research Institute, Rovira i Virgili University, 43002 Reus, Spain. nerea.becerra@urv.cat.
28
CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Spanish Government, 28029 Madrid, Spain. arraez@uv.es.
29
Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain. arraez@uv.es.
30
CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Spanish Government, 28029 Madrid, Spain. mfito@imim.es.
31
Cardiovascular and Nutrition Research Group (Regicor Study Group), Hospital del Mar Research Institute (IMIM), 08003 Barcelona, Spain. mfito@imim.es.
32
CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Spanish Government, 28029 Madrid, Spain. jalfmtz@unav.es.
33
Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences and Physiology, University of Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain. jalfmtz@unav.es.
34
Department of Preventive Medicine & Public Health, University of Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain. ageas@unav.es.

Abstract

A moderately high-fat Mediterranean diet does not promote weight gain. This study aimed to investigate the association between dietary intake of specific types of fat and obesity and body weight. A prospective cohort study was performed using data of 6942 participants in the PREDIMED trial, with yearly repeated validated food-frequency questionnaires, and anthropometric outcomes (median follow-up: 4.8 years). The effects of replacing dietary fat subtypes for one another, proteins or carbohydrates were estimated using generalized estimating equations substitution models. Replacement of 5% energy from saturated fatty acids (SFA) with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) resulted in weight changes of -0.38 kg (95% Confidece Iinterval (CI): -0.69, -0.07), and -0.51 kg (95% CI: -0.81, -0.20), respectively. Replacing proteins with MUFA or PUFA decreased the odds of becoming obese. Estimates for the daily substitution of one portion of red meat with white meat, oily fish or white fish showed weight changes up to -0.87 kg. Increasing the intake of unsaturated fatty acids at the expense of SFA, proteins, and carbohydrates showed beneficial effects on body weight and obesity. It may therefore be desirable to encourage high-quality fat diets like the Mediterranean diet instead of restricting total fat intake.

KEYWORDS:

body weight; cohort study; fat; obesity; substitution models

PMID:
30572588
PMCID:
PMC6315420
DOI:
10.3390/nu10122011
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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