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Memory. 2019 May;27(5):723-728. doi: 10.1080/09658211.2018.1554082. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Association between self-reported and performance-based navigational ability using internet-based remote spatial memory assessment.

Author information

a Baycrest Health Sciences , Rotman Research Institute , Toronto , Canada.
b Department of Psychology , University of Toronto , Toronto , Canada.
c Department of Psychology , York University , Toronto , Canada.
d Department of Psychology , Ryerson University , Toronto , Canada.


Traditionally, studies of spatial memory tend to utilise table-top tasks that focus on new spatial learning, however these in-lab procedures may not be reflective of real world spatial memory or navigation. This study investigated the relationship between self-rated navigation abilities and performance on a naturalistic Internet-based assessment of spatial memory for environments learned long ago. Results indicated that self-rated navigation ability was significantly associated with most of the remote spatial memory metrics. Familiarity with the geographical area tested, as well as frequency of visits, significantly predicted performance on the remote spatial memory measures. These results support the use of internet testing for performance-based navigation abilities in the assessment of remote spatial memory.


Spatial memory; internet testing; memory; navigation; remote spatial memory

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