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J BUON. 2018 Sep-Oct;23(5):1242-1248.

Screening for prostate cancer: moving forward in the molecular era.

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Laboratory of Physiology, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece.


Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is the most widely known screening test to detect prostate cancer (PCa). However, PSA testing has been recently put under the microscope mainly due to its weak correlation with prostate malignancy. In several clinical trials the PSA-screening validity for the diagnosis of PCa was evaluated. PSA lacks the ability to define the progression potential of the disease usually resulting in overdiagnosis and overtreatment of patients. Therefore, the development of new "multivariate" prediction models for PCa that would combine the PSA screening marker (and probably PSA metrics) with better biomarkers and imaging techniques has become an evolving field. New screening tests and/or methods with increased specificity could reduce the number of men undergoing prostate biopsy - thus alleviating patients from the anxiety and the distress experienced by an unnecessary (negative) biopsy- and minimizes the healthcare cost. Herein, we reviewed the information on PSA and other novel tests that can assist in diagnosing clinically meaningful prostate cancer.


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