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Immunity. 2018 Dec 18;49(6):1049-1061.e6. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2018.10.008.

The Innate Immune Sensor NLRC3 Acts as a Rheostat that Fine-Tunes T Cell Responses in Infection and Autoimmunity.

Author information

1
Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA; Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.
2
Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA; Oral and Craniofacial Biomedicine Program, School of Dentistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.
3
Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.
4
Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.
5
Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA. Electronic address: jwhitmir@email.unc.edu.
6
Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA; Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA. Electronic address: jenny_ting@med.unc.edu.

Abstract

Appropriate immune responses require a fine balance between immune activation and attenuation. NLRC3, a non-inflammasome-forming member of the NLR innate immune receptor family, attenuates inflammation in myeloid cells and proliferation in epithelial cells. T lymphocytes express the highest amounts of Nlrc3 transcript where its physiologic relevance is unknown. We show that NLRC3 attenuated interferon-γ and TNF expression by CD4+ T cells and reduced T helper 1 (Th1) and Th17 cell proliferation. Nlrc3-/- mice exhibited increased and prolonged CD4+ T cell responses to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection and worsened experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). These functions of NLRC3 were executed in a T-cell-intrinsic fashion: NLRC3 reduced K63-linked ubiquitination of TNF-receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) to limit NF-κB activation, lowered phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), and diminished glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. This study reveals an unappreciated role for NLRC3 in attenuating CD4+ T cell signaling and metabolism.

KEYWORDS:

CD4(+) T cell response; EAE; LCMV infection; NLRC3; NOD-like receptors; T cell receptor signaling; autoimmunity; inflammatory pathways

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