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J Adhes Dent. 2018;20(6):535-540. doi: 10.3290/j.jad.a41629.

Effects of Lithium and Phosphorus on the Efficacy of a Liner for Increasing the Shear Bond Strength Between Lithium Disilicate and Zirconia.



To evaluate the effect of the chemical formulation of liners on the shear bond strength (SBS) between lithium disilicate veneering ceramic and zirconia core.


Four experimental groups (n = 12) were designed according to liner composition: negative control group (lithium and phosphorus removed from the conventional liner), Li group (lithium added to the negative control group), P group (phosphorus added to the negative control group), and Li+P group as the positive control (conventional liner). After applying the liner, lithium disilicate was pressed on zirconia. Specimens were stored in distilled water (37°C, 24 h) before testing the SBS. To test the SBS, shear force was applied perpendicular to the lithium disilicate-zirconia interface. The differences in the SBS between the veneer lithium disilicate and zirconia substructure were evaluated with one-way ANOVA (significance level of 0.05).


The presence or absence of lithium and phosphorus influenced the efficacy of the liner. The negative control and P groups showed mainly cohesive failures, and the Li group mainly showed mixed failures. Both adhesive and mixed failures were observed in the Li+P group. The groups including lithium showed significantly higher SBS than the negative control or Li+P group (p < 0.05). The group including phosphorus, which showed higher crystallinity, showed significantly lower SBS than the negative control and Li+P groups (p < 0.05).


The differences in the composition of the liner can affect the wettability and reactivity, and as a result, the SBS was different.


liner; liner composition; lithium disilicate; shear bond strength; zirconia


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