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Cell Commun Signal. 2018 Dec 18;16(1):100. doi: 10.1186/s12964-018-0309-z.

Adipocyte-derived IL-6 and leptin promote breast Cancer metastasis via upregulation of Lysyl Hydroxylase-2 expression.

Author information

1
Jiangsu Key laboratory of Drug Screening, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, China.
2
Jiangsu Center for Pharmacodynamics Research and Evaluation, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, China.
3
Breast Disease Center, Zhong-Da Hospital, Southeast University, Nanjing, China.
4
Department of General Surgery, Zhong-Da Hospital, Southeast University, Nanjing, China.
5
Jiangsu Center for Pharmacodynamics Research and Evaluation, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, China. yuanst@cpu.edu.cn.
6
Jiangsu Key laboratory of Drug Screening, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, China. sunli@cpu.edu.cn.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Adipocytes make up the major component of breast tissue, accounting for 90% of stromal tissue. Thus, the crosstalk between adipocytes and breast cancer cells may play a critical role in cancer progression. Adipocyte-breast cancer interactions have been considered important for the promotion of breast cancer metastasis. However, the specific mechanisms underlying these interactions are unclear. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of adipocyte-mediated breast cancer metastasis.

METHODS:

Breast cancer cells were cocultured with mature adipocytes for migration and 3D matrix invasion assays. Next, lentivirus-mediated loss-of-function experiments were used to explore the function of lysyl hydroxylase (PLOD2) in breast cancer migration and adipocyte-dependent migration of breast cancer cells. The role of PLOD2 in breast cancer metastasis was further confirmed using orthotopic mammary fat pad xenografts in vivo. Clinical samples were used to confirm that PLOD2 expression is increased in tumor tissue and is associated with poor prognosis of breast cancer patients. Cells were treated with cytokines and pharmacological inhibitors in order to verify which adipokines were responsible for activation of PLOD2 expression and which signaling pathways were activated in vitro.

RESULTS:

Gene expression profiling and Western blotting analyses revealed that PLOD2 was upregulated in breast cancer cells following coculture with adipocytes; this process was accompanied by enhanced breast cancer cell migration and invasion. Loss-of-function studies indicated that PLOD2 knockdown suppressed cell migration and disrupted the formation of actin stress fibers in breast cancer cells and abrogated the migration induced by following coculture with adipocytes. Moreover, experiments performed in orthotopic mammary fat pad xenografts showed that PLOD2 knockdown could reduce metastasis to the lung and liver. Further, high PLOD2 expression correlated with poor prognosis of breast cancer patients. Mechanistically, adipocyte-derived interleukin-6 (IL-6) and leptin may facilitate PLOD2 upregulation in breast cancer cells and promote breast cancer metastasis in tail vein metastasis assays. Further investigation revealed that adipocyte-derived IL-6 and leptin promoted PLOD2 expression through activation of the JAK/STAT3 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our study reveals that adipocyte-derived IL-6 and leptin promote PLOD2 expression by activating the JAK/STAT3 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, thus promoting breast cancer metastasis.

KEYWORDS:

Adipocytes; Breast Cancer; IL-6; Leptin; Metastasis; PLOD2

PMID:
30563531
PMCID:
PMC6299564
DOI:
10.1186/s12964-018-0309-z
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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