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Nutrients. 2018 Dec 17;10(12). pii: E1999. doi: 10.3390/nu10121999.

Positive Association between Dietary Inflammatory Index and the Risk of Osteoporosis: Results from the KoGES_Health Examinee (HEXA) Cohort Study.

Author information

1
Cancer Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention, National Cancer Center, 10408 Goyang, Gyeonggi do, Korea. hyeskim10@gmail.com.
2
Department of Food and Nutrition, Wonkwang University, 54538 Iksan, Korea. ccha@wku.ac.kr.
3
Cancer Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention, National Cancer Center, 10408 Goyang, Gyeonggi do, Korea. 74433@ncc.re.kr.
4
Department of Food and Nutrition, Wonkwang University, 54538 Iksan, Korea. nawoori6@gmail.com.
5
Cancer Prevention and Control Program, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA. SHIVAPPA@mailbox.sc.edu.
6
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA. SHIVAPPA@mailbox.sc.edu.
7
Connecting Health Innovations LLC, Columbia, SC 29201, USA. SHIVAPPA@mailbox.sc.edu.
8
Cancer Prevention and Control Program, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA. JHEBERT@mailbox.sc.edu.
9
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA. JHEBERT@mailbox.sc.edu.
10
Connecting Health Innovations LLC, Columbia, SC 29201, USA. JHEBERT@mailbox.sc.edu.
11
Cancer Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention, National Cancer Center, 10408 Goyang, Gyeonggi do, Korea. alrud@ncc.re.kr.

Abstract

Previous studies have found that diet's inflammatory potential is related to various diseases. However, little is known about its relationship with osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the dietary inflammatory index (DII®) and osteoporosis risk in a large-scale prospective cohort study in Korea. This prospective cohort study included 159,846 participants (men 57,740; women 102,106) from South Korea with a mean follow-up of 7.9 years. The DII was calculated through a validated semi-quantitative FFQ (SQFFQ), and information on osteoporosis was self-reported by the participants. Analyses were performed by using a multivariable Cox proportional hazard model. Higher DII scores were associated with higher osteoporosis risk (HR 1.33; 95% CI 1.12⁻1.58). In women, a higher DII score indicated a higher risk of osteoporosis (HR 1.33; 95% CI 1.11⁻1.59). However, a hazards ratio of similar magnitude in men was not significant (HR 1.32; 95% CI 0.64⁻2.71). Post-menopausal women had higher risks of osteoporosis for higher DII scores (HR 1.33; 95% CI 1.09⁻1.63), whereas among pre-menopausal women, the relationship was not statistically significant (HR 1.39; 95% CI 0.87⁻2.21). Also, there was an increase in osteoporosis risk when the DII increased among women participants with irregular physical activity (HR 1.53; 95% CI 1.17⁻2.01); however, there was no statistically significant increase in osteoporosis risk among women participants with regular physical activity (HR 1.19; 95% CI 0.93⁻1.52). A more pro-inflammatory diet was significantly associated with higher osteoporosis risk in women. Given the similar magnitude of the hazards ratio, studies with sufficient numbers of men are warranted.

KEYWORDS:

epidemiology; inflammation; nutrition; osteoporosis

Conflict of interest statement

The authors have no conflict of interest in study design, data interpretation and the writing of the manuscript based on the data. The funding body had no role in data interpretation and the writing of the manuscript based on the data. James R. Hébert owns a controlling interest in Connecting Health Innovations LLC (CHI), a company that is planning to license the right to his invention of the dietary inflammatory index (DII) from the University of South Carolina in order to develop computer and smart phone applications for patient counseling and dietary intervention in clinical settings. Nitin Shivappa is an employee of CHI. The remaining authors state that they have no conflicts of interest.

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