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Cells. 2018 Dec 17;7(12). pii: E274. doi: 10.3390/cells7120274.

The Role of Mitochondria in Reactive Oxygen Species Generation and Its Implications for Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Kausar S1,2,3, Wang F4,5,6, Cui H7,8,9.

Author information

1
State Key Laboratory of Silkworm Genome Biology, Southwest University, Beibei, Chongqing 400716, China. drkausarsn@hotmail.com.
2
Engineering Research Center for Cancer Biomedical and Translational Medicine, Southwest University, Beibei, Chongqing 400716, China. drkausarsn@hotmail.com.
3
Chongqing Engineering and Technology Research Center for Silk Biomaterials and Regenerative Medicine, Southwest University, Beibei, Chongqing 400716, China. drkausarsn@hotmail.com.
4
State Key Laboratory of Silkworm Genome Biology, Southwest University, Beibei, Chongqing 400716, China. fengwang_swu@163.com.
5
Engineering Research Center for Cancer Biomedical and Translational Medicine, Southwest University, Beibei, Chongqing 400716, China. fengwang_swu@163.com.
6
Chongqing Engineering and Technology Research Center for Silk Biomaterials and Regenerative Medicine, Southwest University, Beibei, Chongqing 400716, China. fengwang_swu@163.com.
7
State Key Laboratory of Silkworm Genome Biology, Southwest University, Beibei, Chongqing 400716, China. hcui@swu.edu.cn.
8
Engineering Research Center for Cancer Biomedical and Translational Medicine, Southwest University, Beibei, Chongqing 400716, China. hcui@swu.edu.cn.
9
Chongqing Engineering and Technology Research Center for Silk Biomaterials and Regenerative Medicine, Southwest University, Beibei, Chongqing 400716, China. hcui@swu.edu.cn.

Abstract

Mitochondria are dynamic cellular organelles that consistently migrate, fuse, and divide to modulate their number, size, and shape. In addition, they produce ATP, reactive oxygen species, and also have a biological role in antioxidant activities and Ca2+ buffering. Mitochondria are thought to play a crucial biological role in most neurodegenerative disorders. Neurons, being high-energy-demanding cells, are closely related to the maintenance, dynamics, and functions of mitochondria. Thus, impairment of mitochondrial activities is associated with neurodegenerative diseases, pointing to the significance of mitochondrial functions in normal cell physiology. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in our knowledge of mitochondrial functions, which has raised interest in defining the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we summarize the existing knowledge of the mitochondrial function in reactive oxygen species generation and its involvement in the development of neurodegenerative diseases.

KEYWORDS:

electron transport chain; mitochondria; neurodegenerative diseases; oxidative damage

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