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J Affect Disord. 2019 Mar 1;246:1-13. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.12.006. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

The effects of Toxic Early Childhood Experiences on Depression according to Young Schema Model: A Scoping Review.

Author information

1
James Cook University Singapore, 149 Sims Drive, 387380, Singapore. Electronic address: charmaine.lim@my.jcu.edu.au.
2
James Cook University Singapore, 149 Sims Drive, 387380, Singapore. Electronic address: joanna.barlas@jcu.edu.au.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Young Schema Model (YSM) emphasizes Toxic Early Childhood Experiences (TECE) as vulnerability factors to depression. However, the lack of consensus on how to define and measure TECE is likely to have led to inconsistent findings in current literature. This review maps supported and unsupported pathways to depression and measures used.

METHODS:

A scoping review was conducted in accordance with the Joanna Briggs Institute protocol to identify primary research studies that examined developmental and maintenance pathways to depression within the YSM framework. 2463 articles were identified with 49 primary research studies selected for inclusion. As a subset of the overall review, this paper focuses on the 14 studies that examined effects of TECE on depression in context of YSM.

RESULTS:

The studies used 11 different measures to examine the role of TECE in depression. Effects of maltreatment (i.e., physical abuse, emotional abuse, emotional neglect,) and perceived parenting (i.e., low care, high rejection, high overprotection and/or control, maladaptive parenting styles) on depression are well supported. Effects of sexual abuse and physical neglect on depression are currently inconclusive.

CONCLUSION:

In conclusion, findings revealed the inconsistent definition and measurement of TECE (with 11 different measures) in current literature. Findings support the effects of physical abuse, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, low care, high rejection, high overprotection and/or control, and maladaptive parenting styles on depression. Limitations of existing studies include researchers' inconsistent definition and measurement of TECE, under-examined TECE sub-constructs, possible moderating relationships, predominant cross-sectional design, and homogeneous sampling. Limitations of the scoping review include its small number of studies and the absence of evaluation of the measures used. Nevertheless, this review represents the first step in the systematic examination of the empirical basis of YSM and is an important contribution to depression treatment and innovation.

KEYWORDS:

Abuse; Depression; Parenting; Schema therapy; Scoping review; Toxic Early Childhood Experiences

PMID:
30562652
DOI:
10.1016/j.jad.2018.12.006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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