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Niger J Clin Pract. 2018 Dec;21(12):1570-1575. doi: 10.4103/njcp.njcp_256_18.

Midfacial fractures: A retrospective etiological study over a 10-year period in Western Romanian population.

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Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania.
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, County Clinical Emergency Hospital, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.



Midfacial fractures are extremely important oral and maxillofacial problems because they take varied forms and are frequently accompanied by major long-term esthetic or functional complications. Their etiology and epidemiology vary significantly in the literature, and the main causes are varied by population. The aim of this study is to identify the main traumatic etiology of midfacial fractures, along with the main categories of affected patients in our geographical area, in order to establish the need for measures that can prevent fractures in the future.

Materials and Methods:

We conducted a retrospective study over a 10-year period in 379 patients. Data were extracted from the patients' charts, and the following variables were taken into consideration: sex, age, environment of origin, education level, and traumatic etiology.


Midfacial fractures most frequently affected the 20-29 years age group (31.93%), male sex (n = 333, 87.86%, M:F = 7.23:1), patients from urban areas (n = 206, 54.35%), and patients without education (46.70%). The most frequent etiology was interpersonal violence (44.85%), followed by fall trauma (16.62%) and road traffic accidents (15.30%). Statistical correlations evidenced that urban environment favors midfacial fractures caused by interpersonal violence and road traffic accidents or sports injuries, while in rural areas, domestic accidents and animal attacks are predominant (P = 0.000).


The overwhelming incidence of interpersonal violence in our population is currently a major public health problem. Implementing laws and initiating national programs for the prevention of interpersonal violence would lead to a considerable reduction of midfacial fractures in the Western Romanian population.


Etiology; fracture; interpersonal violence; midface; trauma

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