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Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud. 2018 Dec 17;4(6). pii: a003392. doi: 10.1101/mcs.a003392. Print 2018 Dec.

Diagnosing rare diseases after the exome.

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Department of Pathology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.
Department of Genetics, School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA.


High-throughput sequencing has ushered in a diversity of approaches for identifying genetic variants and understanding genome structure and function. When applied to individuals with rare genetic diseases, these approaches have greatly accelerated gene discovery and patient diagnosis. Over the past decade, exome sequencing has emerged as a comprehensive and cost-effective approach to identify pathogenic variants in the protein-coding regions of the genome. However, for individuals in whom exome-sequencing fails to identify a pathogenic variant, we discuss recent advances that are helping to reduce the diagnostic gap.

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