Send to

Choose Destination
J Med Internet Res. 2018 Dec 17;20(12):e12091. doi: 10.2196/12091.

Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy With Real-Time Therapist Support via Videoconference for Patients With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Panic Disorder, and Social Anxiety Disorder: Pilot Single-Arm Trial.

Author information

United Graduate School of Child Development, Osaka University, Kanazawa University, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Chiba University and University of Fukui, Osaka, Japan.
Research Center for Child Mental Development, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.
Department of Cognitive Behavioral Physiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.
Research Center for Medical Economics Administration, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba, Japan.
Reseach and Education Center of Health Sciences, Gunma University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Gunma, Japan.
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan.
Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
Contributed equally



Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is the first-line treatment for adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), panic disorder (PD), and social anxiety disorder (SAD). Patients in rural areas can access CBT via the internet. The effectiveness of internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) has been consistently shown, but no clinical studies have demonstrated the feasibility of ICBT with real-time therapist support via videoconference for OCD, PD, and SAD at the same time.


This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of videoconference-delivered CBT for patients with OCD, PD, or SAD.


A total of 30 Japanese participants (mean age 35.4 years, SD 9.2) with OCD, SAD, or PD received 16 sessions of individualized videoconference-delivered CBT with real-time support of a therapist, using tablet personal computer (Apple iPad Mini 2). Treatment involved individualized CBT formulations specific to the presenting diagnosis; all sessions were provided by the same therapist. The primary outcomes were reduction in symptomatology, using the Yale-Brown obsessive-compulsive scale (Y-BOCS) for OCD, Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) for PD, and Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) for SAD. The secondary outcomes included the EuroQol-5 Dimension (EQ-5D) for Quality of Life, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) for depression, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) questionnaire for anxiety, and Working Alliance Inventory-Short Form (WAI-SF). All primary outcomes were assessed at baseline and at weeks 1 (baseline), 8 (midintervention), and 16 (postintervention) face-to-face during therapy. The occurrence of adverse events was observed after each session. For the primary analysis comparing between pre- and posttreatments, the participants' points and 95% CIs were estimated by the paired t tests with the change between pre- and posttreatment.


A significant reduction in symptom of obsession-compulsion (Y-BOCS=-6.2; Cohen d=0.74; 95% CI -9.4 to -3.0, P=.002), panic (PDSS=-5.6; Cohen d=0.89; 95% CI -9.83 to -1.37; P=.02), social anxiety (LSAS=-33.6; Cohen d=1.10; 95% CI -59.62 to -7.49, P=.02) were observed. In addition, depression (PHQ-9=-1.72; Cohen d=0.27; 95% CI -3.26 to -0.19; P=.03) and general anxiety (GAD-7=-3.03; Cohen d=0.61; 95% CI -4.57 to -1.49, P<.001) were significantly improved. Although there were no significant changes at 16 weeks from baseline in EQ-5D (0.0336; Cohen d=-0.202; 95% CI -0.0198 to 0.00869; P=.21), there were high therapeutic alliance (ie, WAI-SF) scores (from 68.0 to 73.7) throughout treatment, which significantly increased (4.14; 95% CI 1.24 to 7.04; P=.007). Of the participants, 86% (25/29) were satisfied with videoconference-delivered CBT, and 83% (24/29) preferred videoconference-delivered CBT to face-to-face CBT. An adverse event occurred to a patient with SAD; the incidence was 3% (1/30).


Videoconference-delivered CBT for patients with OCD, SAD, and SAD may be feasible and acceptable.


clinical trial; cognitive behavioral therapy; feasibility study; obsessive-compulsive disorder; panic disorder; social anxiety disorder; videoconference

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for JMIR Publications Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center