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Am J Hum Genet. 2019 Jan 3;104(1):35-44. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.11.005. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

GGC Repeat Expansion and Exon 1 Methylation of XYLT1 Is a Common Pathogenic Variant in Baratela-Scott Syndrome.

Author information

1
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Genetic Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.
2
Nemours Biomedical Research Department, Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE 19803, USA.
3
Nemours Biomedical Research Department, Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE 19803, USA; Biological Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA.
4
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Genetic Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA; Brotman Baty Institute for Precision Medicine, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.
5
Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, WA 98105, USA.
6
Legacy Health, Portland, OR 97227, USA.
7
Division of Orthogenetics, Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE 19803, USA; Instituto da Criança, Departamento de Pediatria, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP Brazil.
8
Division of Orthogenetics, Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE 19803, USA.
9
Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.
10
Brotman Baty Institute for Precision Medicine, Seattle, WA 98195, USA; Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.
11
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Genetic Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA; Brotman Baty Institute for Precision Medicine, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. Electronic address: hmefford@uw.edu.
12
Nemours Biomedical Research Department, Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE 19803, USA; Department of Pathology, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA. Electronic address: ks5uq@virginia.edu.

Abstract

Baratela-Scott syndrome (BSS) is a rare, autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by short stature, facial dysmorphisms, developmental delay, and skeletal dysplasia caused by pathogenic variants in XYLT1. We report clinical and molecular investigation of 10 families (12 individuals) with BSS. Standard sequencing methods identified biallelic pathogenic variants in XYLT1 in only two families. Of the remaining cohort, two probands had no variants and six probands had only a single variant, including four with a heterozygous 3.1 Mb 16p13 deletion encompassing XYLT1 and two with a heterozygous truncating variant. Bisulfite sequencing revealed aberrant hypermethylation in exon 1 of XYLT1, always in trans with the sequence variant or deletion when present; both alleles were methylated in those with no identified variant. Expression of the methylated XYLT1 allele was severely reduced in fibroblasts from two probands. Southern blot studies combined with repeat expansion analysis of genome sequence data showed that the hypermethylation is associated with expansion of a GGC repeat in the XYLT1 promoter region that is not present in the reference genome, confirming that BSS is a trinucleotide repeat expansion disorder. The hypermethylated allele accounts for 50% of disease alleles in our cohort and is not present in 130 control subjects. Our study highlights the importance of investigating non-sequence-based alterations, including epigenetic changes, to identify the missing heritability in genetic disorders.

KEYWORDS:

16p13 deletion; Desbuquois dysplasia; XYLT1; epigenetic; fragile site; methylation; repeat expansion; skeletal dysplasia; trinucleotide repeat

PMID:
30554721
PMCID:
PMC6323552
[Available on 2019-07-03]
DOI:
10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.11.005

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