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Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2019 Jan;176:116-121. doi: 10.1016/j.clineuro.2018.12.006. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

The effects of omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E co-supplementation on gene expression related to inflammation, insulin and lipid in patients with Parkinson's disease: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Author information

1
Physiology Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Islamic Republic of Iran.
2
Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Islamic Republic of Iran.
3
Halal Research Center of IRI, FDA, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran.
4
Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Islamic Republic of Iran.
5
Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Islamic Republic of Iran. Electronic address: asemi_r@yahoo.com.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E co-supplementation on gene expression related to inflammation, insulin and lipid in subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD).

PATIENTS AND METHODS:

This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed in 40 subjects with PD. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups to take either 1000 mg/day of omega-3 fatty acids from flaxseed oil plus 400 IU/day of vitamin E supplements or placebo (n = 20 each group) for 12 weeks. Gene expression related to inflammation, insulin and lipid were quantified in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of PD patients with RT-PCR method.

RESULTS:

After the 12-week intervention, compared with the placebo, omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E co-supplementation downregulated gene expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) (P = 0.002) in PBMC of subjects with PD. In addition, omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E co-supplementation upregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) (P = 0.03), and downregulated oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) (P = 0.002) in PBMC of subjects with PD compared with the placebo. We did not observe any significant effect of omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E co-supplementation on gene expression of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-8 in PBMC of patients with PD.

CONCLUSIONS:

Overall, omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E co-supplementation for 12 weeks in PD patients significantly improved gene expression of TNF-α, PPAR-γ and LDLR, but did not affect IL-1 and IL-8.

KEYWORDS:

Inflammation; Insulin metabolism; Parkinson’s disease; Supplementation

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