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Appetite. 2019 Mar 1;134:172-181. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.12.008. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Appetite responses to high-fat diets rich in mono-unsaturated versus poly-unsaturated fats.

Author information

1
Department of Foods and Nutrition, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.
2
Department of Foods and Nutrition, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA; Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.
3
Department of Foods and Nutrition, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA. Electronic address: jamie.cooper@uga.edu.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Modifying the type of dietary fat consumed may impact appetite, therefore having implications in weight management.

OBJECTIVE:

To test the effects of a 5-day, high-fat diet rich in poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and a diet rich in mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) on markers of appetite.

METHODS:

Fifteen normal weight men participated in a randomized cross-over design with two controlled feeding trials (3d lead-in diet, pre-diet visit, 5d PUFA- or MUFA-rich diet, post-diet visit). The 5d diets (50% fat) were rich in either PUFA (25% of energy) or MUFA (25% of energy). At pre- and post-diet visits, subjects consumed breakfast and lunch test meals, rich in the FA corresponding to the 5-day diet. Fasting and postprandial subjective ratings of appetite were determined and blood draws were performed for 4h after each meal to determine changes in appetite hormones. An ad libitum buffet meal was given at the end of pre- and post-diet visits.

RESULTS:

Acutely, at the pre-diet visit, the PUFA-rich meal resulted in lower ghrelin (hunger hormone) (iAUC: -350.85 ± 60.70 vs. -233.16 ± 61.42 pg/ml/8h, for PUFA vs. MUFA, respectively; p < 0.05) and higher CCK (satiation hormone) (iAUC: 238.09 ± 46.07 vs. 196.84 ± 33.92 pM/8h, for PUFA vs. MUFA, respectively; p < 0.05). No other acute meal challenge differences were found. The 5d high PUFA diet resulted in lower hunger ratings (iAUC: -172.06 ± 40.59 vs. -274.46 ± 41.47 mm/8h, for pre-to post-diet, respectively; p < 0.05). However, energy intake, ratings of fullness, or PYY did not change from pre-to post-diet for either MUFA or PUFA, and no other changes were observed with the MUFA diet.

CONCLUSIONS:

Acutely, a PUFA-rich meal results in ghrelin suppression and higher CCK. After a 5-day high-fat diet, PUFAs suppressed postprandial hunger while MUFAs did not change any measures of appetite.

KEYWORDS:

Appetite; Dietary fatty acids; Hunger; Mono-unsaturated fat; Poly-unsaturated fat; Satiety

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