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Acta Sci Cancer Biol. 2018 Nov;2(9):20-26. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Zn/Fe Ratiometric Determination of Zinc Levels in Expressed Prostatic Fluid: A Direct, Non-Invasive and Highly Accurate Screening for Prostate Cancer.

Author information

1
The Department of Oncology and Diagnostic Sciences, University of Maryland School of Dentistry, Maryland, United States of America.
2
The University of Maryland Greenebaum Comprehensive Cancer Center Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.

Abstract

Prostate specific antigen (PSA) does not provide the reliability that is required for the accurate urology screening of prostate cancer (PCa). Consequently, there has been a major focus and search for a simple, rapid, direct, preferably non-invasive, and highly accurate biomarker and procedure for the urology screening for prostate cancer. Virtually all PCa cases exhibit a marked decrease in zinc in prostate tissue and in prostatic fluid. This is a hallmark "signature" clinical characteristic for all prostate cancers, which provides the clinical basis for zinc screening of PCa. Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) of zinc levels in expressed prostatic fluid (EPF) provides > 90% accuracy for the identification of prostate cancer vs normal/benign prostate. An energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) Zn/Fe ratiometric analysis of expressed prostatic fluid (EPF) can provide > 90% accuracy for the identification of prostate cancer vs normal/benign prostate. This will be achieved by direct EDXRF analysis of a "drop" of EPF directly deposited on a filter paper disc during the urology digital rectal examination of the subject. Interfering and confounding conditions that besiege PSA do not exist in the EDXRF Zn/Fe radiometric analyses. This report reviews the basis for zinc analysis for PCA, provides the supporting evidence that EDXRF Zn/Fe ratiometric analysis of EPF will provide a simple, rapid, direct, non-invasive, and highly accurate biomarker and procedure for the urology screening for prostate cancer.

KEYWORDS:

Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence; Expressed Prostatic Fluid; Prostate Cancer; Urology Screening; Zn/Fe Ratiometric Analysis

PMID:
30547158
PMCID:
PMC6289197

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