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Natl J Maxillofac Surg. 2018 Jul-Dec;9(2):117-122. doi: 10.4103/njms.NJMS_52_17.

Minimally invasive transgingival implant therapy: A literature review.

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Department of Dental Surgery, BRD Medical College, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dental Sciences, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.


Transgingival (flapless) implant placement procedure is a minimally invasive surgical technique in which implant is placed without reflecting mucoperiosteal flap and hence the blood supply of bone is not hampered which is advantageous in many ways. To compare the outcomes of various implant placement techniques, an electronic database of various journals from January 1990 to March 2017 were analyzed and only human clinical trials with 6 months follow-up and at least five implants in each group were reviewed. The present literature review focuses on the comparative aspects of flapped versus flapless implants in terms of their survival, marginal bone loss, soft-tissue parameters, and patient-centered outcomes. When the proper protocol is followed by experienced surgeons, no significant difference was observed in survival rate, marginal bone loss, and keratinized mucosal width between flapless and conventional flap technique. Although transgingival approach for implant placement is reported to significantly reduce the surgical time, increased patient comfort and acceptance, i.e. the patient centered outcomes such as postoperative pain, swelling, and visual analog score, are minimized. Hence, it is concluded that transgingival (flapless) implant placement technique is well accepted by the patient with potential outcomes as compared to the conventional implant placement approach.


Dental implants; flapless; flapped; implant surgery; outcomes; review

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