Send to

Choose Destination
J Conserv Dent. 2018 Nov-Dec;21(6):667-670. doi: 10.4103/JCD.JCD_252_18.

Light intensity output of visible light communication units and clinicians' knowledge and attitude among Riyadh private clinics.

Author information

Dental Interns, Riyadh Elm University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Department of Restorative, College of Dentistry, Riyadh Elm University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.



With the evolution of bonded restorations, visible light-curing units became inseparable from the practice of dentistry. This study was designed to evaluate light intensity output of light-emitting diode (LED) units used in private clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and to investigate dentists' knowledge and attitude regarding the usage of light-curing units.


Two hundred randomly selected LED units' light intensity output was evaluated using Demetron ® LED Radiometer-Kerr among evenly distributed private clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Three measurements of 20 s were taken, and average values were obtained. Furthermore, Output intensity measurements were subcategorized into three groups; <400 mW/cm2- inadequate intensity, 400-850 - marginal intensity, and more than 850 - adequate intensity. In addition, 100 questionnaires of ten close-ended questions, investigating demographics, knowledge, and attitude toward visible light communication (VLC) units, were filled by the same private clinics' dentists and data were collected and analyzed by SPSS. The investigation was started after official processing and agreement achieved between the investigators and the private clinics' administrators to get their full cooperation.


Majority of dentists (78%) reported that they do not measure the light intensity output and 9% of the measured light intensity output of LED units was found of inadequate intensity, 40.5% of marginal intensity, and 50.5% of adequate intensity. Moreover, only 31% knew the minimum accepted wavelength of VLC units.


Dentists among private clinics express poor knowledge, maintenance, and attitude toward VLC units. Educational programs are advisable, and routinely monitoring of VLC units is recommended.


Light-emitting diode; light intensity; visible light communication

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Medknow Publications and Media Pvt Ltd Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center