Send to

Choose Destination
J Conserv Dent. 2018 Nov-Dec;21(6):597-601. doi: 10.4103/JCD.JCD_218_18.

Influence of tobacco dependence on caries development in young male adults: A cross-sectional study.

Author information

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Department of Medicine, Psychiatry Unit, MLN Medical College, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India.



A definite cause and effect relationship between tobacco use and caries are lacking in literature.


The aim of this study is to determine the influence of tobacco dependence on caries development in young male adults.

Materials and Methods:

Three hundred healthy adult males in the age group of 20-40 years were divided into three groups containing 100 participants each. Group A: participants using smokeless tobacco; Group B: participants who smoke tobacco; and Group C: participants who have never used tobacco. Their dependence on tobacco was assessed using the Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence. Their dental caries status was assessed using decayed-missing-filled teeth/decayed-missing-filled surfaces (DMFT/DMFS) index adopted by the WHO (1987). Observations were statistically analyzed using Mann-Whitney test, and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.


Mean DMFT/DMFS was significantly higher for Groups A and B as compared to Group C. Within Group A, mean DMFT/DMFS increased significantly with increased dependence on smokeless tobacco. Within Group B, highest DMFT/DMFS was found in participants with low dependence on smoked tobacco while least mean DMFT/DMFS was found in participants with high dependence.


Both forms of tobacco proved to be a significant risk factor for increased caries development. Thus, tobacco use should be an important factor in caries risk assessment of patients.


Caries; nicotine dependence; smokeless tobacco; smoking; tobacco

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Medknow Publications and Media Pvt Ltd Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center