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J Conserv Dent. 2018 Nov-Dec;21(6):597-601. doi: 10.4103/JCD.JCD_218_18.

Influence of tobacco dependence on caries development in young male adults: A cross-sectional study.

Author information

1
Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India.
2
Department of Medicine, Psychiatry Unit, MLN Medical College, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Abstract

Background:

A definite cause and effect relationship between tobacco use and caries are lacking in literature.

Aim:

The aim of this study is to determine the influence of tobacco dependence on caries development in young male adults.

Materials and Methods:

Three hundred healthy adult males in the age group of 20-40 years were divided into three groups containing 100 participants each. Group A: participants using smokeless tobacco; Group B: participants who smoke tobacco; and Group C: participants who have never used tobacco. Their dependence on tobacco was assessed using the Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence. Their dental caries status was assessed using decayed-missing-filled teeth/decayed-missing-filled surfaces (DMFT/DMFS) index adopted by the WHO (1987). Observations were statistically analyzed using Mann-Whitney test, and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results:

Mean DMFT/DMFS was significantly higher for Groups A and B as compared to Group C. Within Group A, mean DMFT/DMFS increased significantly with increased dependence on smokeless tobacco. Within Group B, highest DMFT/DMFS was found in participants with low dependence on smoked tobacco while least mean DMFT/DMFS was found in participants with high dependence.

Conclusion:

Both forms of tobacco proved to be a significant risk factor for increased caries development. Thus, tobacco use should be an important factor in caries risk assessment of patients.

KEYWORDS:

Caries; nicotine dependence; smokeless tobacco; smoking; tobacco

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