Send to

Choose Destination
Healthcare (Basel). 2018 Dec 12;6(4). pii: E146. doi: 10.3390/healthcare6040146.

Guidelines for the Treatment of PTSD Using Clinical EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques).

Author information

National Institute for Integrative Healthcare, Fulton, CA 20759, USA.
School of Psychology, Faculty of Society and Design, Bond University, Robina, Gold Coast, QLD 4229, Australia.
Institute of Psychoanalysis, London W9 2BT, UK.
Private Practice, Ashland, OR 97520, USA.
Department of Social Work and Social Welfare, School of Health and Social Care, Staffordshire University, Staffordshire ST42DE, UK.
Asociacion Hispana de EFT, Mexico City 72150, Mexico.
School of Psychology, Faculty of Society and Design, Bond University, Robina, Gold Coast, QLD 4229, Australia.


Clinical EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques) is an evidence-based method that combines acupressure with elements drawn from cognitive and exposure therapies. The approach has been validated in more than 100 clinical trials. Its efficacy for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been investigated in a variety of demographic groups including war veterans, victims of sexual violence, the spouses of PTSD sufferers, motor accident survivors, prisoners, hospital patients, adolescents, and survivors of natural and human-caused disasters. Meta-analyses of EFT for anxiety, depression, and PTSD indicate treatment effects that exceed those of both psychopharmacology and conventional psychotherapy. Studies of EFT in the treatment of PTSD show that (a) time frames for successful treatment generally range from four to 10 sessions; (b) group therapy sessions are effective; (c) comorbid conditions such as anxiety and depression improve simultaneously; (d) the risk of adverse events is low; (e) treatment produces physiological as well as psychological improvements; (f) patient gains persist over time; (g) the approach is cost-effective; (h) biomarkers such as stress hormones and genes are regulated; and (i) the method can be adapted to online and telemedicine applications. This paper recommends guidelines for the use of EFT in treating PTSD derived from the literature and a detailed practitioner survey. It has been reviewed by the major institutions providing training or supporting research in the method. The guidelines recommend a stepped-care model, with five treatment sessions for subclinical PTSD, 10 sessions for PTSD, and escalation to intensive psychotherapy or psychopharmacology or both for nonresponsive patients and those with developmental trauma. Group therapy, social support, apps, and online and telemedicine methods also contribute to a successful treatment plan.


clinical guidelines; emotional freedom techniques (EFT); post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); veteran

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI) Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center