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J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2018 Dec 12. doi: 10.1097/MPH.0000000000001383. [Epub ahead of print]

Successful Treatment of Relapsed Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia Presenting as Central Nervous System Myeloid Sarcoma: A Single-Institution Case Series.

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Department of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, Baystate Children's Hospital, Springfield, MA.
Department of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA.
Department of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY.


Relapsed acute myeloid leukemia presenting as an isolated central nervous system myeloid sarcoma (CNS MS) is very rare and generally entails poor outcomes. CNS MS treatment is not well defined and can include systemic chemotherapy, intrathecal chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Thiotepa, vinorelbine, topotecan, and clofarabine (TVTC) has been successful for reinduction therapy in relapsed/refractory leukemia to induce remission before hematopoietic stem cell transplant. There is no published evidence of TVTC being utilized for CNS MS. In this series, we report 2 symptomatic patients with isolated CNS MS at relapse who demonstrated near complete resolution after reinduction with TVTC and additional intrathecal chemotherapy.

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