Send to

Choose Destination
BMC Public Health. 2018 Dec 13;18(Suppl 4):1309. doi: 10.1186/s12889-018-6192-0.

Assessment of unmet needs to address noncompliant households during polio supplemental immunization activities in Kaduna state, 2014-2016.

Author information

World Health Organization Country Office, Abuja, Nigeria.
National Primary Health Care Development Agency, Abuja, Nigeria.
World Health Organization Country Office, Abuja, Nigeria.
Global Public Health Solutions, Atlanta, GA, USA.
State Ministry of Health, Kaduna, Nigeria.



Despite concerted global efforts being made to eradicate poliomyelitis, the wild poliovirus still circulates in three countries, including Nigeria. In addition, Nigeria experiences occasional outbreaks of the circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2). Vaccine rejection by caregivers persists in some parts of northern Nigeria, which compromises the quality of supplemental immunization activities (SIAs). In 2013, the Expert Review Committee (ERC) on polio recommended innovative interventions in all high-risk northern states to improve the quality of SIA rounds through innovative interventions. The study assessed the impact of using unmet needs data to develop effective strategies to address noncompliant households in 13 high-risk Local government areas (LGAs) in Kaduna state, Nigeria.


A retrospective study was conducted in noncompliant communities using unmet needs data collated from 2014 to 2016. Household-based noncompliance data collated from tally sheets between 2013 and 2016 was also analyzed to assess the impact of unmet needs data in addressing noncompliance households in high-risk communities in Kaduna state. A structured interview was used to interview caregivers by the application of an unmet needs questionnaire, a quantitative study that assesses caregiver perception on immunization and other unmet needs which, if the gaps were addressed, would allow them to accept immunization services. Interventions include siting of temporary health camps in noncompliant communities to provide free medical consultations, treatment of minor ailments, provision of free antimalaria drugs and other essential drugs, and also referral of serious cases; intervention of religious and traditional leaders, youth against polio intervention, and the use of attractive bonuses (sweets, balloons, milk) during SIAs were all innovations applied to reduce noncompliance in households in affected communities as the need for eradication of polio was declared as a state of emergency. Outcomes from the analyses of unmet needs data were used to direct specific interventions to certain areas where they will be more effective in reducing the number of noncompliant households recorded on the tally sheet in each SIA round. Hence, seven immunization parameters were assessed from the unmet needs data.


Overall, 54% of the noncompliant caregivers interviewed were ready to support immunization services in their communities. The majority of caregivers were also willing to vaccinate their children publicly following unmet needs interventions that were conducted in noncompliant communities. The trend of noncompliant households decreased by 79% from 16,331 in September 2013 to 3394 in May 2016.


Unmet needs interventions were effective in reducing the number of noncompliant households recorded during SIA rounds in Kaduna State. Hence, unmet needs intervention could be adapted at all levels to address challenges faced in other primary healthcare programs in Nigeria.


High-risk communities; Noncompliant households; Supplementary immunization activities; Unmet need intervention; Unmet needs; Vaccine rejection

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for BioMed Central Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center