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PLoS One. 2018 Dec 12;13(12):e0207954. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0207954. eCollection 2018.

Antimicrobial resistance, plasmid, virulence, multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium clinical and environmental isolates from India.

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Division of Bacteriology, Indian Council of Medical Research-National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
Department of Microbiology, All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
Hospital Infection Control, Manipal Hospital, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.
Department of Clinical Microbiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.
Department of Microbiology, Apollo Gleneagles Hospitals, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.


Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a common serovar associated with non-typhoidal salmonellosis globally. However, there is insufficient data on molecular characterization of S. Typhimurium isolates from India. This study was undertaken to determine the antimicrobial resistance (AMR), plasmid, virulence profiles and molecular subtypes of S. Typhimurium Indian isolates (n = 70) of clinical and environmental origin isolated during 2010-2017. Antimicrobial susceptibility and minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined by disc diffusion and E-test methods respectively. Plasmid extraction was done following standard protocol. AMR genes, virulence genes and plasmid incompatibility types were detected by PCR; Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) were used for molecular subtyping. Majority (57%) of the study isolates was pan susceptible; five AMR profiles were observed among the resistant (43%) isolates. AMR was significantly (p = 0.004) associated with extra-intestinal isolates than intestinal isolates.The class 1 integron and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes (qnrB1, qnrS1) in the resistant isolates were transferable by conjugation. Plasmids (≥1) ranging from 1.9 to 254kb size and of IncFIIS and/or FIB type were found in most isolates. A total of 39 pulsotypes by PFGE and four sequence types by MLST like ST36 (55.7%), ST19 (32.9%), ST313 (10%) and ST213 (1.4%) were observed. ST36 and ST19 were found circulating in both clinical and environmental host, while ST313 isolates had an exclusive clinical origin. All ST19 isolates (100%) were drug-resistant, while isolates belonging to ST313 (100%), ST213 (100%) and ST36 (82%) were pan susceptible. The virulence plasmid (VP) genes (spvB- spvC) were present in all genotypes except ST36. The VP was significantly (p<0.001) associated with extra-intestinal than intestinal isolates. Some environmental and clinical isolates were clonal indicating their zoonotic transmission. Knowledge on the molecular subtypes and AMR profiles of locally prevalent Salmonella serotypes is important for effective control of spread of resistant organisms. The MLST of S. Typhimurium isolates and its association with AMR, virulence profiles was not reported earlier from India.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

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