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J Refract Surg. 2018 Dec 1;34(12):840-847. doi: 10.3928/1081597X-20181012-01.

Tomographic and Biomechanical Scheimpflug Imaging for Keratoconus Characterization: A Validation of Current Indices.



To analyze the potential benefit of the newly developed Tomography and Biomechanical Index (TBI) for early keratoconus screening.


In this retrospective study, the discriminatory power of the corneal tomography Belin/Ambrósio Enhanced Ectasia Display (BAD-D) index and the newly developed Corvis Biomechanical Index (CBI) and TBI to differentiate between normal eyes, manifest keratoconus eyes (KCE), very asymmetric keratoconus eyes with ectasia (VAE-E), and their fellow eyes with either regular topography (VAE-NT) or regular topography and tomography (VAE-NTT) were analyzed by applying the t test (for normal distribution), Wilcoxon matched-pairs test (if not normally distributed), and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). The DeLong test was used to compare the area under the ROC (AUROC). Further, the cut-offs of the analyzed indices presented in a study by Ambrósio et al. from 2017 were applied in the study population to enable a cross-validation in an independent study population.


All indices demonstrated a high discriminative power when comparing normal and advanced keratoconus, which decreased when comparing normal and VAE-NT eyes and further when analyzing normal versus VAE-NTT eyes. The difference between the AUROCs reached a statistically significant level when comparing TBI versus BAD-D analyzing normal versus all included keratoconic eyes (P = .02). The TBI presented with the highest AUROCs throughout all conducted analyses when comparing different keratoconus stages, although not reaching a statistically significant level. Applying the cut-offs presented by Ambrósio et al. to differentiate between normal and VAE-NT in the study population, the accuracy was reproducible (accuracy in our study population with an optimized TBI cut-off: 0.72, with the cut-off defined by Ambrósio et al. 0.67).


The TBI enables karatoconus screening in topographical and tomographical regular keratoconic eyes. To further improve the screening accuray, prospective studies should be conducted. [J Refract Surg. 2018;34(12):840-847.].

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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