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J Parasit Dis. 2018 Dec;42(4):630-635. doi: 10.1007/s12639-018-1046-3. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Cryptosporidium infection in chronic kidney disease patients undergoing hemodialysis in Egypt.

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1Department of Medical Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, South Valley University, Qena, 83523 Egypt.
2Department of Medical Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, 71515 Egypt.
3Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, South Valley University, Qena, 83523 Egypt.
4Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Damanhour University, Damanhûr, 21634 Egypt.


Patients with chronic renal failure are more susceptible to infections due to acquired immunodeficiency caused by uremia. Parasitic infections are one of the significant causes of morbidity and mortality in those patients, So we aimed to assess the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and other protozoan infections in patients undergoing hemodialysis in Qena Governorate, Upper Egypt. The present study took place in Qena University Hospitals, Egypt. Participants were 150 Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) patients undergoing hemodialysis, and 50 healthy individuals. After questionnaire, three consecutive stool samples from each participant were examined macroscopically and microscopically by different techniques for the presence of different stages of different protozoa. 66% of CKD patients and 26% of the control group were infected with intestinal protozoa. Cryptosporidium spp. were the protozoa with the highest prevalence in cases (40%) and control (6%) with statistical significance (P < 0.05). It was detected only in watery stool samples (P value < 0.05). Residence, age and gender were not significant variables in the prevalence of infection among patients with CKD. In Egypt, few studies had reported the prevalence of Cryptosporidiosis in chronic renal patients. Cryptosporidium infection should be suspected in all cases of prolonged watery diarrhea in CKD patients and stool samples should be examined using special stains as cold modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining for proper diagnosis of Cryptosporidium infections.


Cryptosporidium; Egypt; Hemodialysis

[Available on 2019-12-01]

Conflict of interest statement

Compliance with ethical standardsAll authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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