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Folia Morphol (Warsz). 2018 Dec 11. doi: 10.5603/FM.a2018.0113. [Epub ahead of print]

Klingler's method of brain dissection: review of the technique including its usefulness in practical neuroanatomy teaching, neurosurgery and neuroimaging.

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Department of Normal and Clinical Anatomy, Interfaculty Chair of Anatomy and Histology, Medical University of Lodz,, Poland.


Klingler's technique was discovered in the 1930s. It is a modified method of brain fixation and dissection, based on freezing and thawing of the brain tissue, subsequent peeling away of white matter fibers and the gradual exposure of white matter tracts. The added value of this technique is that it is carried out in a stratigraphic manner; This fact makes it an invaluable tool for an in-depth understanding of the complex anatomical organization of the cerebral hemispheres. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of Klingler's method while taking into account the original description of the technique and its value for medical training. The historical background, the concise outline of white matter organization, as well as our own experience in using this procedure for research and teaching activities were also included. The fiber dissection technique may still be considered an excellent complementary research tool for neuroanatomical studies. Numerous detailed observations about the white matter topography and spatial organization have been recently made by applying this method. Using this technique may also improve understanding of the three-dimensional intrinsic structure of the brain, which is particularly important both in under- and postgraduate training in the field of neuroanatomy.


Klingler's technique; fiber dissection technique; neuroanatomy; tractography; white matter

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