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Arch Toxicol. 2019 Feb;93(2):293-310. doi: 10.1007/s00204-018-2368-8. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

The role of roughage provision on the absorption and disposition of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol and its acetylated derivatives in calves: from field observations to toxicokinetics.

Author information

1
Department of Large Animal Internal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Belgium.
2
Faculty of Science and Technology, University College Ghent, Melle, Belgium.
3
Clinical Department of Production Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium.
4
Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Belgium.
5
Flanders Research Institute for Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (ILVO), Technology and Food Science Unit-Food Safety, Melle, Belgium.
6
Department of Bioanalysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
7
Institute of Applied Synthetic Chemistry, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria.
8
Department of Applied Genetics and Cell Biology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Tulln, Austria.
9
Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre, CODA-CERVA, Tervuren, Belgium.
10
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium.
11
Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Belgium. Gunther.Antonissen@UGent.be.
12
Department of Pathology, Bacteriology and Avian Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Belgium. Gunther.Antonissen@UGent.be.

Abstract

A clinical case in Belgium demonstrated that feeding a feed concentrate containing considerable levels of deoxynivalenol (DON, 1.13 mg/kg feed) induced severe liver failure in 2- to 3-month-old beef calves. Symptoms disappeared by replacing the highly contaminated corn and by stimulating ruminal development via roughage administration. A multi-mycotoxin contamination was demonstrated in feed samples collected at 15 different veal farms in Belgium. DON was most prevalent, contaminating 80% of the roughage samples (mixed straw and maize silage; average concentration in positives: 637 ± 621 µg/kg, max. 1818 µg/kg), and all feed concentrate samples (411 ± 156 µg/kg, max. 693 µg/kg). In order to evaluate the impact of roughage provision and its associated ruminal development on the gastro-intestinal absorption and biodegradation of DON and its acetylated derivatives (3- and 15-ADON) in calves, a toxicokinetic study was performed with two ruminating and two non-ruminating male calves. Animals received in succession a bolus of DON (120 µg/kg bodyweight (BW)), 15-ADON (50 µg/kg BW), and 3-ADON (25 µg/kg) by intravenous (IV) injection or per os (PO) in a cross-over design. The absolute oral bioavailability of DON was much higher in non-ruminating calves (50.7 ± 33.0%) compared to ruminating calves (4.1 ± 4.5%). Immediately following exposure, 3- and 15-ADON were hydrolysed to DON in ruminating calves. DON and its acetylated metabolites were mainly metabolized to DON-3-glucuronide, however, also small amounts of DON-15-glucuronide were detected in urine. DON degradation to deepoxy-DON (DOM-1) was only observed to a relevant extent in ruminating calves. Consequently, toxicity of DON in calves is closely related to roughage provision and the associated stage of ruminal development.

KEYWORDS:

3- and 15-Acetyldeoxynivalenol; Biodegradation; Calf; Deoxynivalenol; Mycotoxin; Toxicokinetics

PMID:
30535711
DOI:
10.1007/s00204-018-2368-8
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