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J Nutr. 2019 Jan 1;149(1):57-67. doi: 10.1093/jn/nxy238.

The Association of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid δ-5-Desaturase Activity with Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes Is Dependent on Plasma ApoB-Lipoproteins in Overweight and Obese Adults.

Author information

1
Faculty of Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec.
2
Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montréal (IRCM), Montréal, Québec.
3
Institut de Cardiologie de Montréal (ICM), Montréal, Québec.
4
Montreal Diabetes Research Center (MDRC), Montréal, Québec.

Abstract

Background:

δ-5 and δ-6 desaturases (D5D and D6D) catalyze the endogenous conversion of n-3 (ω-3) and n-6 (ω-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Their activities are negatively and positively associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), respectively, by unclear mechanisms. Elevated plasma apoB-lipoproteins (measured as plasma apoB), which can be reduced by n-3 PUFA intake, promote T2D risk factors.

Objective:

The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the association of D5D and D6D activities with T2D risk factors is dependent on plasma apoB.

Methods:

This is a pooled analysis of 2 populations recruited for 2 different metabolic studies. It is a post hoc analysis of baseline data of these subjects [n = 98; 60% women (postmenopausal); mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m2): 32.8 ± 4.7; mean ± SD age: 57.6 ± 6.3 y]. Glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS) and insulin sensitivity (IS) were measured using Botnia clamps. Plasma clearance of a high-fat meal (600 kcal/m2, 66% fat) and white adipose tissue (WAT) function (storage of 3H-triolein-labeled substrate) were assessed in a subpopulation (n = 47). Desaturase activities were estimated from plasma phospholipid fatty acids. Associations were examined using Pearson and partial correlations.

Results:

While both desaturase activities were positively associated with percentage of eicosapentaenoic acid, only D5D was negatively associated with plasma apoB (r = -0.30, P = 0.003). Association of D5D activity with second-phase GIIS (r = -0.23, P = 0.029), IS (r = 0.33, P = 0.015, in women) and 6-h area-under-the-curve (AUC6h) of plasma chylomicrons (apoB48, r = -0.47, P = 0.020, in women) was independent of age and adiposity, but was eliminated after adjustment for plasma apoB. D6D activity was associated in the opposite direction with GIIS (r = 0.24, P = 0.049), IS (r = -0.36, P = 0.004) and AUC6h chylomicrons (r = 0.52, P = 0.004), independent of plasma apoB. Both desaturases were associated with plasma interleukin-1-receptor antagonist (D5D: r = -0.45, P < 0.001 in women; D6D: r = -0.33, P = 0.007) and WAT function (trend for D5D: r = 0.30, P = 0.05; D6D: r = 0.39, P = 0.027) independent of any adjustment.

Conclusions:

Association of D5D activity with IS, lower GIIS, and plasma chylomicron clearance is dependent on plasma apoB in overweight and obese adults.

PMID:
30535058
PMCID:
PMC6351138
[Available on 2020-01-01]
DOI:
10.1093/jn/nxy238

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