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Nat Rev Cancer. 2019 Jan;19(1):9-31. doi: 10.1038/s41568-018-0081-9.

The lung microenvironment: an important regulator of tumour growth and metastasis.

Altorki NK1,2,3, Markowitz GJ1,2, Gao D1,2,3,4, Port JL1,2,3, Saxena A3,5, Stiles B1,2,3, McGraw T1,3,6, Mittal V7,8,9,10.

Author information

1
Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA.
2
Neuberger Berman Foundation Lung Cancer Research Center, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA.
3
Meyer Cancer Center, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA.
4
Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA.
5
Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA.
6
Department of Biochemistry, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA.
7
Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA. vim2010@med.cornell.edu.
8
Neuberger Berman Foundation Lung Cancer Research Center, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA. vim2010@med.cornell.edu.
9
Meyer Cancer Center, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA. vim2010@med.cornell.edu.
10
Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA. vim2010@med.cornell.edu.

Abstract

Lung cancer is a major global health problem, as it is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Major advances in the identification of key mutational alterations have led to the development of molecularly targeted therapies, whose efficacy has been limited by emergence of resistance mechanisms. US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved therapies targeting angiogenesis and more recently immune checkpoints have reinvigorated enthusiasm in elucidating the prognostic and pathophysiological roles of the tumour microenvironment in lung cancer. In this Review, we highlight recent advances and emerging concepts for how the tumour-reprogrammed lung microenvironment promotes both primary lung tumours and lung metastasis from extrapulmonary neoplasms by contributing to inflammation, angiogenesis, immune modulation and response to therapies. We also discuss the potential of understanding tumour microenvironmental processes to identify biomarkers of clinical utility and to develop novel targeted therapies against lung cancer.

PMID:
30532012
DOI:
10.1038/s41568-018-0081-9

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