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Nat Neurosci. 2019 Jan;22(1):7-14. doi: 10.1038/s41593-018-0286-y. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Role of astrocytes, microglia, and tanycytes in brain control of systemic metabolism.

Author information

1
Institute for Diabetes and Obesity, Helmholtz Diabetes Center, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH), Neuherberg, Germany.
2
Department of Physiology, Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.
3
Inserm, Laboratory of Development and Plasticity of the Neuroendocrine Brain, Centre de Recherche Jean-Pierre Aubert, Université de Lille, Faculté de Médecine, Lille, France.
4
Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France.
5
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
6
Institute of Anatomy, Leipzig University, Leipzig, Germany.
7
Department of Comparative Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.
8
Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Academic Medical Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
9
Department of Endocrinology, Hospital Infantil Universitario Niño Jesús, Instituto de Investigación la Princesa; IMDEA Food Institute, CEI UAM + CSIC; CIBEROBN, Instituto Carlos III Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
10
Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
11
Achucarro Center for Neuroscience, IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Bilbao, Spain.
12
Department of Neuroscience, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.
13
Institute for Diabetes and Obesity, Helmholtz Diabetes Center, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH), Neuherberg, Germany. tschoep@helmholtz-muenchen.de.
14
Division of Metabolic Diseases, Department of Medicine, Technische Universität, Munich, Germany. tschoep@helmholtz-muenchen.de.

Abstract

Astrocytes, microglia, and tanycytes play active roles in the regulation of hypothalamic feeding circuits. These non-neuronal cells are crucial in determining the functional interactions of specific neuronal subpopulations involved in the control of metabolism. Recent advances in biology, optics, genetics, and pharmacology have resulted in the emergence of novel and highly sophisticated approaches for studying hypothalamic neuronal-glial networks. Here we summarize the progress in the field and argue that glial-neuronal interactions provide a core hub integrating food-related cues, interoceptive signals, and internal states to adapt a complex set of physiological responses operating on different timescales to finely tune behavior and metabolism according to metabolic status. This expanding knowledge helps to redefine our understanding of the physiology of food intake and energy metabolism.

PMID:
30531847
DOI:
10.1038/s41593-018-0286-y

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