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  • PMID: 30531196 was deleted because it is a duplicate of PMID: 30883514
Ther Drug Monit. 2019 Apr;41(2):213-226. doi: 10.1097/FTD.0000000000000589.

Biomarkers of Drug-Induced Kidney Toxicity.

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Division of Renal Diseases and Hypertension, University of Colorado at Denver, Aurora, Colorado.


Blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine are imperfect markers of kidney function because they are influenced by many renal and nonrenal factors independent of kidney function. A biomarker that is released directly into the blood or urine by the kidney in response to injury may be a better early marker of drug-induced kidney toxicity than blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine. Urine albumin and urine protein, as well as urinary markers kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), β2-microglobulin (B2M), cystatin C, clusterin, and trefoil factor-3 (TFF-3) have been accepted by the Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency as highly sensitive and specific urinary biomarkers to monitor drug-induced kidney injury in preclinical studies and on a case-by-case basis in clinical trials. Other biomarkers of drug-induced kidney toxicity that have been detected in the urine of rodents or patients include IL-18, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, netrin-1, liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), urinary exosomes, and TIMP2 (insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7)/IGFBP7 (insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7), also known as NephroCheck, the first Food and Drug Administration-approved biomarker testing platform to detect acute kidney injury in patients. In the future, a combined use of functional and damage markers may advance the field of biomarkers of drug-induced kidney toxicity. Earlier detection of drug-induced kidney toxicity with a kidney-specific biomarker may result in the avoidance of nephrotoxic agents in clinical studies and may allow for earlier intervention to repair damaged kidneys.

[Available on 2020-04-01]

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