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Phys Ther Sport. 2019 Jan;35:106-115. doi: 10.1016/j.ptsp.2018.11.012. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

A systematic review of shoulder injury prevalence, proportion, rate, type, onset, severity, mechanism and risk factors in female artistic gymnasts.

Author information

1
Sports and Exercise Medicine, William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Hospital, Bancroft Road, London, E1 4DG, UK. Electronic address: nicolehinds07@gmail.com.
2
Sports and Exercise Medicine, William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Hospital, Bancroft Road, London, E1 4DG, UK. Electronic address: m.angioi@qmul.ac.uk.
3
Sports and Exercise Medicine, William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Hospital, Bancroft Road, London, E1 4DG, UK. Electronic address: a.birn-jeffery@qmul.ac.uk.
4
Sports and Exercise Medicine, William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Hospital, Bancroft Road, London, E1 4DG, UK. Electronic address: r.twycross-lewis@qmul.ac.uk.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Systematically review shoulder injury prevalence, proportion, rate, type, onset, severity, mechanism, risk factors in female artistic gymnasts.

METHODS:

PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane Library were searched on 7/01/2017. Original studies reporting data for female artistic gymnasts only, of any age or level were included. Quality assessment was undertaken using Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies.

RESULTS:

Fifteen observational studies were included. Thirteen were poor/fair quality. Shoulder injury prevalence (0%-86.9%) was higher in international (29.2%) versus national (20%) gymnasts. As a proportion of all injuries, shoulder injuries made up 4.2%-7.5%. Rates (0.35-5.7/1000 athlete exposures) were greater during practice (5.0/1000) than competition (2.4/1000). Multidirectional instability (33.8%, 37.7%) and musculotendinous injury (26.6%-90.9%) were the most common injury. In four studies 66.2%-100% of total shoulder injuries were acute onset. Most (59.3%) shoulder injuries were minor, 7.4% required surgery and 80% caused symptoms post-retirement. Asymmetric bars were the most frequent mechanism of shoulder injury. One study reported excessive shoulder stretching, hyperlaxity and instability as significant (p < 0.001) potential risk factors.

CONCLUSIONS:

Shoulder injuries are a problem among female artistic gymnasts. Interventional studies reporting age and competition level-specific data may guide prevention strategy implementation.

KEYWORDS:

Epidemiology; Gymnastics; Preventative medicine; Upper extremity; Wounds and injuries

PMID:
30529860
DOI:
10.1016/j.ptsp.2018.11.012
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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