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J Surg Res. 2019 Feb;234:294-302. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2018.08.048. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Hydrogen Sulfide Donor GYY4137 Acts Through Endothelial Nitric Oxide to Protect Intestine in Murine Models of Necrotizing Enterocolitis and Intestinal Ischemia.

Author information

1
Department of Surgery, Section of Pediatric Surgery, Riley Hospital for Children at Indiana University Health, Indianapolis, Indiana; Department of Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana.
2
Department of Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana.
3
Department of Surgery, Section of Pediatric Surgery, Riley Hospital for Children at Indiana University Health, Indianapolis, Indiana; Department of Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana. Electronic address: tmarkel@iupui.edu.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in premature infants is often a devastating surgical condition with poor outcomes. GYY4137 is a long-acting donor of hydrogen sulfide, a gasotransmitter that is protective against intestinal injury in experimental NEC, likely through protection against injury secondary to ischemia. We hypothesized that administration of GYY4137 would improve mesenteric perfusion, reduce intestinal injury, and reduce inflammatory responses in experimental NEC and ischemia-reperfusion injury, and that these benefits would be mediated through endothelial nitric oxide synthase-dependent pathways.

METHODS:

NEC was induced in C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) knockout (eNOSKO) pups via maternal separation, formula feeding, enteral lipopolysaccharide, and intermittent hypoxic and hypothermic stress. Pups received daily intraperitoneal injections of 50 mg/kg GYY4137 or phosphate buffered saline vehicle. In separate groups, adult male WT and eNOSKO mice underwent superior mesenteric artery occlusion for 60 min. Before abdominal closure, 50 mg/kg GYY4137 or phosphate buffered saline vehicle was administered into the peritoneal cavity. Laser doppler imaging was used to assess mesenteric perfusion of pups at baseline and on postnatal day 9, and the adult mice at baseline and 24 h after ischemic insult. After euthanasia, the terminal ileum of each animal was fixed, paraffin embedded, sectioned, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Sections were blindly graded using published injury scores. Intestinal tissue was homogenized and cytokines measured by ELISA. Data were compared using Mann-Whitney U test, and P-values <0.05 were significant.

RESULTS:

After NEC and ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury, GYY4137 improved perfusion in WT mice compared to vehicle, but this effect was lost in the eNOSKO animals. Histologic injury followed a similar pattern with reduced intestinal injury in WT mice treated with GYY4137, and no significant improvement in the eNOSKO group. Cytokine expression after GYY4137 administration was altered by the ablation of eNOS in both NEC and I/R injury groups, with significant differences noted in Interleukin 6 and vascular endothelial growth factor.

CONCLUSIONS:

GYY4137, a long-acting donor of hydrogen sulfide, has potential as a therapeutic compound for NEC. It improves mesenteric perfusion and intestinal injury in experimental NEC and intestinal I/R injury, and these benefits appear to be mediated through eNOS-dependent pathways.

KEYWORDS:

Animal model; Hydrogen sulfide; Intestine; Ischemia-reperfusion; Necrotizing enterocolitis

PMID:
30527488
PMCID:
PMC6291834
[Available on 2020-02-01]
DOI:
10.1016/j.jss.2018.08.048

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