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Front Microbiol. 2018 Nov 20;9:2717. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.02717. eCollection 2018.

Genetic Differentiation, Diversity, and Drug Susceptibility of Candida krusei.

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State Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.
Department of Clinical Laboratory, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.
Beijing Key Laboratory for Mechanisms Research and Precision Diagnosis of Invasive Fungal Diseases, Beijing, China.
School of Biomedical Science, Charles Sturt University, Orange, NSW, Australia.
Central West Pathology Laboratory, Orange, NSW, Australia.
Key Laboratory of Wildlife Biotechnology, Conservation and Utilization of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, China.
Department of Dermatology, Hainan Provincial Center for Skin Disease and STI Control, Haikou, China.


Candida krusei is a notable pathogenic fungus that causes invasive candidiasis, mainly due to its natural resistance to fluconazole. However, to date, there is limited research on the genetic population features of C. krusei. We developed a set of microsatellite markers for this organism, with a cumulative discriminatory power of 1,000. Using these microsatellite loci, 48 independent C. krusei strains of clearly known the sources, were analyzed. Furthermore, susceptibility to 9 antifungal agents was determined for each strain, by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution method. Population structure analyses revealed that C. krusei could be separated into two clusters. The cluster with the higher genetic diversity had wider MIC ranges for six antifungal agents. Furthermore, the highest MIC values of the six antifungal agents belonged to the cluster with higher genetic diversity. The higher genetic diversity cluster might have a better adaptive capacity when C. krusei is under selection pressure from antifungal agents, and thus is more likely to develop drug resistance.


Candida krusei; drug susceptibility; genetic differentiation; genetic diversity; invasive candidiasis; microsatellites

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