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Cancer Treat Res. 2019;177:231-250. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-03502-0_9.

HIV-HBV and HIV-HCV Coinfection and Liver Cancer Development.

Author information

1
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, 500 University Drive, Hershey, PA, 17033, USA. juh13@psu.edu.
2
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, 500 University Drive, Hershey, PA, 17033, USA.

Abstract

Liver diseases that are caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), have become increasingly important in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as their life expectancy is getting longer with successful anti-HIV therapy. Due to their shared transmission routes, dual infection by HIV and HBV or HIV and HCV, and triple infection by all three viruses are fairly common and affect millions of people worldwide. Whereas the immunodeficiency caused by HIV enhances the likelihood of HBV and HCV persistence, hepatotoxicity associated with anti-HIV therapy can worsen the liver diseases associated with HBV or HCV persistence. Evidence suggests HIV infection increases the risk of HBV- or HCV-associated HCC risk although the precise mechanisms of enhanced hepatocarcinogenesis remain to be fully elucidated. Recent success in curing HCV infection, and the availability of therapeutic options effective in long-term suppression of both HIV and HBV replication, bring hope, fortunately, to those who are coinfected but also highlight the need for judicious selection of antiviral therapies.

KEYWORDS:

Coinfection; HBV; HCC; HCV; HIV; Hepatitis B virus; Hepatitis C virus; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Human immunodeficiency virus

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