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Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2019 Apr;25(4):800-809. doi: 10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.11.022. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Pulmonary Impairment after Respiratory Viral Infections Is Associated with High Mortality in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipients.

Author information

1
Department of Pulmonary Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.
2
Infectious Diseases, Infection Control and Employee Health, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas. Electronic address: rfchemaly@mdanderson.org.
3
Stem Cell Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.
4
Infectious Diseases, Infection Control and Employee Health, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

Abstract

Pulmonary impairment predicts increased mortality in many settings, and respiratory viral infection (RVI) causes considerable morbidity and mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant recipients (allo-HCT). We hypothesized that pulmonary impairment after RVI, defined as a decline of forced expiratory volume in 1 second values by ≥10%, may identify allo-HCT recipients at high risk for mortality. We studied all allo-HCT recipients at our institution who had RVI with respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, or influenza from 2004 to 2013 and had pre-RVI and post-RVI pulmonary function tests. We used competing risk regression models to identify risk factors for 2-year nonrelapse mortality (NRM) as the primary outcome after RVI and relapse-related mortality as a competing risk. From 223 eligible patients, pulmonary impairment after RVI was associated with over a 3-fold increase in 2-year NRM (pulmonary impairment, 25.3%; no impairment, 7.4%; univariate subhazard ratio [SHR], 3.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9 to 8.1; P < .001). After adjusting for age and systemic steroid use, pulmonary impairment after RVI was still associated with increased 2-year NRM (SHR, 3.3 [95% CI, 1.6 to 6.9]; P = .002). After adjustment for race and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, chronic GVHD at the time of RVI (odds ratio [OR], 2.8 [95% CI, 1.4 to 5.4]; p = .003) and lymphopenia (OR, 2.2 [95% CI, 1.1 to 4.2]; P = .02) were associated with increased odds of pulmonary impairment, whereas use of nonmyeloablative conditioning was associated with reduced odds of pulmonary impairment (OR, .4 [95% CI, .2 to .8]; P = .006). In allo-HCT recipients with RVIs, pulmonary impairment after RVI is associated with high NRM at 2years.

KEYWORDS:

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation; Hematologic malignancy; Pulmonary function; Pulmonary impairment; Respiratory viral infection

PMID:
30521974
PMCID:
PMC6453743
[Available on 2020-04-01]
DOI:
10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.11.022

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