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Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2018 Dec 6. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.b.32701. [Epub ahead of print]

Solving for X: Evidence for sex-specific autism biomarkers across multiple transcriptomic studies.

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Centre for Pattern Recognition and Data Analytics (PRaDA), Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.
Centre for Molecular and Medical Research, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.
Bioinformatics Core Research Group, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.
Deakin eResearch, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.
Intersect Australia, Sydney, Australia.
Computational Health Informatics Program, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA.
Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
Department of Public Health Sciences and UC Davis MIND Institute, School of Medicine, Davis, California.
Psychiatric Genetic Epidemiology and Neurobiology Laboratory (PsychGENe Lab) SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York.
Poultry Hub Australia, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales, Australia.


Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a markedly heterogeneous condition with a varied phenotypic presentation. Its high concordance among siblings, as well as its clear association with specific genetic disorders, both point to a strong genetic etiology. However, the molecular basis of ASD is still poorly understood, although recent studies point to the existence of sex-specific ASD pathophysiologies and biomarkers. Despite this, little is known about how exactly sex influences the gene expression signatures of ASD probands. In an effort to identify sex-dependent biomarkers and characterize their function, we present an analysis of a single paired-end postmortem brain RNA-Seq data set and a meta-analysis of six blood-based microarray data sets. Here, we identify several genes with sex-dependent dysregulation, and many more with sex-independent dysregulation. Moreover, through pathway analysis, we find that these sex-independent biomarkers have substantially different biological roles than the sex-dependent biomarkers, and that some of these pathways are ubiquitously dysregulated in both postmortem brain and blood. We conclude by synthesizing the discovered biomarker profiles with the extant literature, by highlighting the advantage of studying sex-specific dysregulation directly, and by making a call for new transcriptomic data that comprise large female cohorts.


ASD; autism; biomarkers; sex-specific; transcriptome


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