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Int J Cancer. 2018 Dec 5. doi: 10.1002/ijc.32042. [Epub ahead of print]

Impact of systemic and tumor lipid metabolism on everolimus efficacy in advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs).

Author information

1
Medical Oncology Department, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.
2
IFOM, the FIRC Institute of Molecular Oncology, Milan, Italy.
3
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.
4
Molecular Targeting Unit, Department of Research, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.
5
Oncology and Haemato-Oncology Department, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.
6
Hepato-Bilio-Pancreatic Surgery and Liver Transplantation, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.
7
School of Medicine, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Abstract

The mTOR inhibitor everolimus is effective against advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs). However, it can cause metabolic adverse events, such as hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia. In this work we aimed at evaluating the impact of systemic and tumor lipid metabolism on everolimus efficacy. We carried out a monocentric, retrospective study to correlate plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels with the progression free survival (PFS) of advanced pNET patients treated with everolimus. In formalin fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE) tumor specimens, we also assessed by mRNA quantification and immunohistochemistry the expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) and fatty acid synthase (FASN), two enzymes crucially involved in fatty acid biosynthesis, and we analyzed their impact on PFS. We evaluated 58 consecutive pNET patients who started everolimus between December 2006 and January 2015. Patients with higher plasma triglycerides during the first 3 months of treatment had an increased risk of disease progression (aHR 3.08, 95% CIs 1.15-8.21; p = 0.025). In 23 FFPE tumor specimens amenable for IHC evaluations, we found a positive correlation between ACC1 and FASN at both mRNA (r = 0.87, p = 0.00045) and protein (r = 0.68, p = 0.0004) level. Patients with higher ACC1 protein expression in metastatic lesions had significantly lower PFS when compared to patients with lower ACC1 levels (5.5 vs. 36 months; aHR 4.49, 95% CIs 1.08-18.72; p = 0.039). In conclusion, systemic and tumor lipid metabolism are associated with the PFS of everolimus-treated patients with advanced pNETs; based on these findings, dietary and pharmacological interventions targeting lipid metabolism could improve everolimus efficacy in this patient population.

KEYWORDS:

acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1; everolimus; lipid metabolism; metformin; pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors; triglycerides

PMID:
30520016
DOI:
10.1002/ijc.32042

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