Send to

Choose Destination
Front Neurosci. 2018 Nov 15;12:827. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2018.00827. eCollection 2018.

TPH-2 Gene Polymorphism in Major Depressive Disorder Patients With Early-Wakening Symptom.

Author information

Department of Psychiatry, The Affiliated Brain Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.
School of Biological Sciences and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, China.
Key Laboratory of Child Development and Learning Science, Southeast University, Nanjing, China.
Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing Brain Hospital, Nanjing, China.


Background: Sleep disturbances, such as early wakening, are frequently observed in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). The suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), which controls circadian rhythm, is innervated by the raphe nucleus, a region where Tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH-2) gene is primarily expressed. Although TPH-2 is often implicated in the pathophysiology of depression, few studies have applied a genetic and imaging technique to investigate the mechanism of early wakening symptom in MDD. We hypothesized that TPH-2 variants could influence the function of SCN in MDD patients with early wakening symptom. Methods: One hundred and eighty five MDD patients (62 patients without early wakening and 123 patients with early wakening) and 64 healthy controls participated in this study. Blood samples were collected and genotyping of rs4290270, rs4570625, rs11178998, rs7305115, rs41317118, and rs17110747 were performed by next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. Logistic regression model was employed for genetic data analysis using the PLINK software. Based on the allele type, rs4290270, which was significant in the early wakening MDD group, participants were categorized into two groups (A allele and T carrier). All patients underwent whole brain resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) scanning and a voxel-wise functional connectivity comparison was performed between the groups. Results: rs4290270 was significantly linked to MDD patients who exhibited early wakening symptom. The functional connectivities of the right SCN with the right fusiform gyrus and right middle frontal gyrus were increased in the T carrier group compared to the A allele group. In addition, the functional connectivities of the left SCN with the right lingual gyrus and left calcarine sulcus were decreased in the T carrier group compared to the A allele group. Conclusion: These findings suggested that the TPH-2 gene variant, rs4290270, affected the circadian regulating function of SCN. The altered functional connectivities, observed between the SCN and right fusiform gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, the right lingual gyrus and left calcarine sulcus, could highlight the neural mechanism by which SCN induces sleep-related circadian disruption in T carrier MDD patients. Hence, rs4290270 could potentially serve as a reliable biomarker to identify MDD patients with early wakening symptom.


circadian disruption; early wakening; major depressive disorder; resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging; tryptophan hydroxylase-2

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Frontiers Media SA Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center