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Clin Cosmet Investig Dent. 2018 Nov 9;10:251-262. doi: 10.2147/CCIDE.S184498. eCollection 2018.

Osteoimmunology of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-6, and RANTES/CCL5: a review of known and poorly understood inflammatory patterns in osteonecrosis.

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Clinic for Integrative Dentistry, Munich 81547, Germany,
Institute for Epidemiological Studies, Berlin 10709, Germany.
Department of Immunology and Allergology, Institute for Medical Diagnostics in MVZ GbR, Berlin 12247, Germany.



The immune and bone systems are closely linked via cytokine cross-talk. This interdisciplinary field of research is referred to as osteoimmunology and pertains to inflammatory and osteoarticular diseases that feature the primary expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and IL-6.


Are there bone resorptive processes wherein chronic inflammatory conditions are not linked to TNF-α and IL-6 expression, but rather to the expression of other cytokines?

Materials and methods:

A comprehensive literature search was performed in PubMed Central.


Although all diseases with cytokines involved in bone resorption (TNF-α and IL-6) are at the forefront of destructive inflammatory processes, there is one exception in the literature: fatty oxide osteoporosis/osteolysis in the jawbone (FDOJ), which is associated with significant bone softening. However, it should be noted that TNF-α and IL-6 fall below the levels found in a healthy jawbone in this condition. Another conspicuous finding is that there is a nearly 35-fold overexpression of the chemokine RANTES/CCL5 (R/C) in all FDOJ cases studied thus far in the literature.


FDOJ appears to represent a unique cytokine and inflammatory pattern from osteolysis in the body. R/C can be defined as the dominant carrier of a "maxillomandibular osteoimmunology".


CCL5; bone resorption; chemokine RANTES; maxillomandibular; maxillomandibular osteoimmunology; tumor necrosis factor-alpha

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