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Clin Cosmet Investig Dent. 2018 Nov 9;10:251-262. doi: 10.2147/CCIDE.S184498. eCollection 2018.

Osteoimmunology of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-6, and RANTES/CCL5: a review of known and poorly understood inflammatory patterns in osteonecrosis.

Author information

1
Clinic for Integrative Dentistry, Munich 81547, Germany, drlechner@aol.com.
2
Institute for Epidemiological Studies, Berlin 10709, Germany.
3
Department of Immunology and Allergology, Institute for Medical Diagnostics in MVZ GbR, Berlin 12247, Germany.

Abstract

Background:

The immune and bone systems are closely linked via cytokine cross-talk. This interdisciplinary field of research is referred to as osteoimmunology and pertains to inflammatory and osteoarticular diseases that feature the primary expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and IL-6.

Objective:

Are there bone resorptive processes wherein chronic inflammatory conditions are not linked to TNF-α and IL-6 expression, but rather to the expression of other cytokines?

Materials and methods:

A comprehensive literature search was performed in PubMed Central.

Discussion:

Although all diseases with cytokines involved in bone resorption (TNF-α and IL-6) are at the forefront of destructive inflammatory processes, there is one exception in the literature: fatty oxide osteoporosis/osteolysis in the jawbone (FDOJ), which is associated with significant bone softening. However, it should be noted that TNF-α and IL-6 fall below the levels found in a healthy jawbone in this condition. Another conspicuous finding is that there is a nearly 35-fold overexpression of the chemokine RANTES/CCL5 (R/C) in all FDOJ cases studied thus far in the literature.

Conclusion:

FDOJ appears to represent a unique cytokine and inflammatory pattern from osteolysis in the body. R/C can be defined as the dominant carrier of a "maxillomandibular osteoimmunology".

KEYWORDS:

CCL5; bone resorption; chemokine RANTES; maxillomandibular; maxillomandibular osteoimmunology; tumor necrosis factor-alpha

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