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Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2018 Dec 3;73:e723. doi: 10.6061/clinics/2017/e723.

Precision Medicine: Changing the way we think about healthcare.

Author information

1
Faculdade de Medicina FMUSP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, BR.
2
Laboratorio de Cirurgia Cardiovascular e Fisiopatologia da Circulacao (LIM-11), Instituto do Coração (InCor), Hospital das Clinicas HCFMUSP, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, BR.
3
Divisao de Anestesiologia, Hospital das Clinicas HCFMUSP, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, BR.

Abstract

Health care has changed since the decline in mortality caused by infectious diseases as well as chronic and non-contagious diseases, with a direct impact on the cost of public health and individual health care. We must now transition from traditional reactive medicine based on symptoms, diagnosis and treatment to a system that targets the disease before it occurs and, if it cannot be avoided, treats the disease in a personalized manner. Precision Medicine is that new way of thinking about medicine. In this paper, we performed a thorough review of the literature to present an updated review on the subject, discussing the impact of the use of genetics and genomics in the care process as well as medical education, clinical research and ethical issues. The Precision Medicine model is expanded upon in this article to include its principles of prediction, prevention, personalization and participation. Finally, we discuss Precision Medicine in various specialty fields and how it has been implemented in developing countries and its effects on public health and medical education.

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