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Front Immunol. 2018 Nov 20;9:2670. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.02670. eCollection 2018.

Betaine Inhibits Interleukin-1β Production and Release: Potential Mechanisms.

Xia Y1,2,3, Chen S2,3, Zhu G4, Huang R3, Yin Y1,3,5, Ren W1,4.

Author information

1
Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition Control, Institute of Subtropical Animal Nutrition and Feed, College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China.
2
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
3
Laboratory of Animal Nutrition and Health and Key Laboratory of Agro-Ecology, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha, China.
4
Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoo Noses, Joint International Research Laboratory of Agriculture and Agri-Product Safety of Ministry of Education of China, College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China.
5
Academics Working Station at The First Affiliated Hospital, Changsha Medical University, Changsha, China.

Abstract

Betaine is a critical nutrient for mammal health, and has been found to alleviate inflammation by lowering interleukin (IL)-1β secretion; however, the underlying mechanisms by which betaine inhibits IL-1β secretion remain to be uncovered. In this review, we summarize the current understanding about the mechanisms of betaine in IL-1β production and release. For IL-1β production, betaine affects canonical and non-canonical inflammasome-mediated processing of IL-1β through signaling pathways, such as NF-κB, NLRP3 and caspase-8/11. For IL-1β release, betaine inhibits IL-1β release through blocking the exocytosis of IL-1β-containing secretory lysosomes, reducing the shedding of IL-1β-containing plasma membrane microvesicles, suppressing the exocytosis of IL-1β-containing exosomes, and attenuating the passive efflux of IL-1β across hyperpermeable plasma membrane during pyroptotic cell death, which are associated with ERK1/2/PLA2 and caspase-8/A-SMase signaling pathways. Collectively, this review highlights the anti-inflammatory property of betaine by inhibiting the production and release of IL-1β, and indicates the potential application of betaine supplementation as an adjuvant therapy in various inflammatory diseases associating with IL-1β secretion.

KEYWORDS:

IL-1β; betaine; caspase-8; inflammasome; inflammation

PMID:
30515160
PMCID:
PMC6255979
DOI:
10.3389/fimmu.2018.02670
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