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Nat Rev Microbiol. 2018 Dec 4. doi: 10.1038/s41579-018-0117-x. [Epub ahead of print]

Viral RNA structure-based strategies to manipulate translation.

Author information

1
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA.
2
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA. jeffrey.kieft@ucdenver.edu.
3
RNA Bioscience Initiative, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA. jeffrey.kieft@ucdenver.edu.

Abstract

Viruses must co-opt the cellular translation machinery to produce progeny virions. Eukaryotic viruses have evolved a variety of ways to manipulate the cellular translation apparatus, in many cases using elegant RNA-centred strategies. Viral RNAs can alter or control every phase of protein synthesis and have diverse targets, mechanisms and structures. In addition, as cells attempt to limit infection by downregulating translation, some of these viral RNAs enable the virus to overcome this response or even take advantage of it to promote viral translation over cellular translation. In this Review, we present important examples of viral RNA-based strategies to exploit the cellular translation machinery. We describe what is understood of the structures and mechanisms of diverse viral RNA elements that alter or regulate translation, the advantages that are conferred to the virus and some of the major unknowns that provide motivation for further exploration.

PMID:
30514982
DOI:
10.1038/s41579-018-0117-x

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