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Nat Commun. 2018 Dec 4;9(1):4924. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-07262-2.

Smartphone app for non-invasive detection of anemia using only patient-sourced photos.

Author information

1
The Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering at Georgia Tech and Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.
2
Aflac Cancer and Blood Disorders Center of Children's Healthcare of Atlanta and Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA.
3
The Parker H. Petit Institute for Bioengineering and Biosciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA.
4
Department of Biostatistics & Bioinformatics, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.
5
Department of Biomedical Informatics, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.
6
The Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering at Georgia Tech and Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA. wilbur.lam@emory.edu.
7
Aflac Cancer and Blood Disorders Center of Children's Healthcare of Atlanta and Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA. wilbur.lam@emory.edu.
8
The Parker H. Petit Institute for Bioengineering and Biosciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA. wilbur.lam@emory.edu.

Abstract

We introduce a paradigm of completely non-invasive, on-demand diagnostics that may replace common blood-based laboratory tests using only a smartphone app and photos. We initially targeted anemia, a blood condition characterized by low blood hemoglobin levels that afflicts >2 billion people. Our app estimates hemoglobin levels by analyzing color and metadata of fingernail bed smartphone photos and detects anemia (hemoglobin levels <12.5 g dL-1) with an accuracy of ±2.4 g dL-1 and a sensitivity of 97% (95% CI, 89-100%) when compared with CBC hemoglobin levels (n = 100 subjects), indicating its viability to serve as a non-invasive anemia screening tool. Moreover, with personalized calibration, this system achieves an accuracy of ±0.92 g dL-1 of CBC hemoglobin levels (n = 16), empowering chronic anemia patients to serially monitor their hemoglobin levels instantaneously and remotely. Our on-demand system enables anyone with a smartphone to download an app and immediately detect anemia anywhere and anytime.

PMID:
30514831
PMCID:
PMC6279826
DOI:
10.1038/s41467-018-07262-2
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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