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Minerva Pediatr. 2019 Aug;71(4):380-389. doi: 10.23736/S0026-4946.18.05223-4. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Metabolic effects of treatment in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: a systematic review.

Author information

1
Department of Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
2
Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy.
3
Orthodontic Programs, Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy.
4
Department of Medical, Surgical and Health Sciences, University of Messina, Messina, Italy - rosamariaf@hotmail.it.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Growth retardation was frequently observed in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients but the complex mechanisms causing this condition are still unclear. Several findings suggested growth catch-up after surgical treatment but other studies did not confirm the results, showing no improvement in OSA patients after tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (T&A). The aim of the present study was to systematically review scientific literature of the relationships between OSA and metabolic changes involving growth hormone (GH) axis before and after treatment in patients.

EVIDENCE ACQUISITION:

Different databases were searched without limitations up to August 2017. Additionally, the bibliographies of the finally selected articles were hand searched to identify any relevant publications that were not previously identified.

EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS:

From the 37 studies collected from all the databases based on their title and abstract, only 12 studies actually fulfilled the selection criteria. From the twelve finally selected articles, eight focused on growth mediators, two evaluated endothelial mediators, one focused on neurocognitive function and mediators and one focused on local inflammation.

CONCLUSIONS:

OSA children present lower levels of growth mediators (IGF-I and IGFBP-3) thus indicating growth retardation, significantly higher cardiovascular disease risk and decreased cognitive functions when compared to controls. T&A seems to improve all the above mentioned functions with great impact on general health.

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