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Nat Commun. 2018 Dec 3;9(1):5136. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-07648-2.

Long-term experimental hybridisation results in the evolution of a new sex chromosome in swordtail fish.

Author information

1
Lehrstuhl für Zoologie und Evolutionsbiologie, Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, Universitätsstraße 10, 78457, Konstanz, Germany.
2
Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, 75123, Sweden.
3
Physiological Chemistry, Biozentrum, University of Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074, Würzburg, Germany.
4
Department of Biology, Utah State University, Logan, UT, 84322, USA.
5
McDonnell Genome Institute, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, 63108, MO, USA.
6
The Xiphophorus Genetic Stock Center, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas State University, San Marcos, 78666-4616, TX, USA.
7
Lehrstuhl für Zoologie und Evolutionsbiologie, Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, Universitätsstraße 10, 78457, Konstanz, Germany. axel.meyer@uni-konstanz.de.
8
Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University, 9 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA. axel.meyer@uni-konstanz.de.
9
Physiological Chemistry, Biozentrum, University of Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074, Würzburg, Germany. phch1@biozentrum.uni-wuerzburg.de.
10
Comprehensive Cancer Centre, University Clinic Würzburg, Josef Schneider Straße 6, 97074, Würzburg, Germany. phch1@biozentrum.uni-wuerzburg.de.
11
Hagler Institute for Advanced Study and Department of Biology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843, USA. phch1@biozentrum.uni-wuerzburg.de.

Abstract

The remarkable diversity of sex determination mechanisms known in fish may be fuelled by exceptionally high rates of sex chromosome turnovers or transitions. However, the evolutionary causes and genomic mechanisms underlying this variation and instability are yet to be understood. Here we report on an over 30-year evolutionary experiment in which we tested the genomic consequences of hybridisation and selection between two Xiphophorus fish species with different sex chromosome systems. We find that introgression and imposing selection for pigmentation phenotypes results in the retention of an unexpectedly large maternally derived genomic region. During the hybridisation process, the sex-determining region of the X chromosome from one parental species was translocated to an autosome in the hybrids leading to the evolution of a new sex chromosome. Our results highlight the complexity of factors contributing to patterns observed in hybrid genomes, and we experimentally demonstrate that hybridisation can catalyze rapid evolution of a new sex chromosome.

PMID:
30510159
PMCID:
PMC6277394
DOI:
10.1038/s41467-018-07648-2
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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