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Mar Pollut Bull. 2018 Nov;136:481-490. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.09.045. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Oxidative conversion of potential perfluoroalkyl acid precursors in Jiaozhou Bay and nearby rivers and sewage treatment plant effluent in China.

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School of Geography and Tourism, Qufu Normal University, Rizhao 276826, China. Electronic address:
School of Geography and Tourism, Qufu Normal University, Rizhao 276826, China.
School of Life Science, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165, China.
State Key Laboratory of Simulation and Regulation of Water Cycle in River Basin, China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing 100038, China.


Precursors that can be transformed into perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have not been investigated in detail. In this study, the levels of potential PFAA precursors in the Jiaozhou Bay, inflowing rivers, and STP (sewage treatment plant) effluents were investigated by converting all PFAA precursors into perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) by chemical oxidation. The significance of controlling PFAA precursors was indicated by the ratios of PFCAs converted by the oxidative treatment of precursors to PFAAs before oxidation (∑△[PFCAC4-C12]/∑[PFAA]before oxidation). The higher levels of △[PFCAC4-C12] (average = 18.89 ng/L) and lower ratios (∑△[PFCAC4-C12]/∑[PFAA]before oxidation, average = 0.21) were revealed in the STP effluents rather than in the water of the Jiaozhou Bay and rivers, which implied the precursors conversion during the sewage treatment process. The concentrations of △[PFCAs] and the aforementioned ratios showed apparent spatial and temporal differences. These results indicated that STPs were the important sources of precursors to other water bodies.


Effluent; Oxidation; Perfluorinated; Perfluoroalkyl acid precursor; Qingdao city

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