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Ann Intern Med. 2018 Dec 4. doi: 10.7326/M18-2124. [Epub ahead of print]

Trends in Drug Use-Associated Infective Endocarditis and Heart Valve Surgery, 2007 to 2017: A Study of Statewide Discharge Data.

Author information

1
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (A.J.S., D.L.R.).
2
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia (A.F.).
3
Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (V.H.C.).
4
Duke University School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, and Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (L.W.).

Abstract

Background:

Drug use-associated infective endocarditis (DUA-IE) is increasing as a result of the opioid epidemic. Infective endocarditis may require valve surgery, but surgical treatment of DUA-IE has invoked controversy, and the extent of its use is unknown.

Objective:

To examine hospitalization trends for DUA-IE, the proportion of hospitalizations with surgery, patient characteristics, length of stay, and charges.

Design:

10-year analysis of a statewide hospital discharge database.

Setting:

North Carolina hospitals, 2007 to 2017.

Patients:

All patients aged 18 years or older hospitalized for IE.

Measurements:

Annual trends in all IE admissions and in IE hospitalizations with valve surgery, stratified by patients' drug use status. Characteristics of DUA-IE surgical hospitalizations, including patient demographic characteristics, length of stay, disposition, and charges.

Results:

Of 22 825 IE hospitalizations, 2602 (11%) were for DUA-IE. Valve surgery was performed in 1655 IE hospitalizations (7%), including 285 (17%) for DUA-IE. Annual DUA-IE hospitalizations increased from 0.92 to 10.95 and DUA-IE hospitalizations with surgery from 0.10 to 1.38 per 100 000 persons. In the final year, 42% of IE valve surgeries were performed in patients with DUA-IE. Compared with other surgical patients with IE, those with DUA-IE were younger (median age, 33 vs. 56 years), were more commonly female (47% vs. 33%) and white (89% vs. 63%), and were primarily insured by Medicaid (38%) or uninsured (35%). Hospital stays for DUA-IE were longer (median, 27 vs. 17 days), with higher median charges ($250 994 vs. $198 764). Charges for 282 DUA-IE hospitalizations exceeded $78 million.

Limitation:

Reliance on administrative data and billing codes.

Conclusion:

DUA-IE hospitalizations and valve surgeries increased more than 12-fold, and nearly half of all IE valve surgeries were performed in patients with DUA-IE. The swell of patients with DUA-IE is reshaping the scope, type, and financing of health care resources needed to effectively treat IE.

Primary Funding Source:

National Institutes of Health.

PMID:
30508432
DOI:
10.7326/M18-2124

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